May 18: in Air self-defense forces unit was established space operations numbering 20 people.
The unit is extremely small, however, the appearance of the detachment, who will wage war in space, is a landmark in the history of the Japanese troops.
The fact that the fighting in space is an integral part of modern warfare. Before the self-defense forces was imperfect structure, which was not the part responsible for the fighting in space.
Small unit space operations should be developed to a large structure. Establishment of space operations should be considered in relation to the creation of the American space forces.
The Japanese unit space operations, and Space forces of the United States
20 December 2019, the US President, Donald trump has signed the defense budget for 2020, under which was formally established Space power.
Many American soldiers criticized the formation of the space forces, stating that it is an unnecessary add-on, and that the existing system is sufficient.
Despite the protests, President trump still insisted on the creation of Space forces. His goal was to leave his name in history by forming the sixth kind of troops in the form of Cosmic forces, which will not differ from the air force, Navy and land forces. The interest of the President of trump in the development of space comes from a deep respect for President Ronald Reagan. The slogan of the President of trump security concerns — “the world from a position of strength” is the slogan of President Reagan. In addition, during the election campaign in 2016, the headquarters of the trump along with the concept of “peace from a position of strength” also promoted “the revival of the American space developments.” These two slogan directly copy the slogans of President Reagan.
The importance of space for security
The creation of U.S. space forces and Japanese units space operations is the growth opportunities of China and Russia in space. The space below list the important aspects in the light of modern war:
— China and Russia will position the space as an integral space of modern war. His trump card they consider the possibility of defeat American satellites;
— China and Russia have developed important space technology: collection of information from space tracking and exploration. In addition, they also modernize the system of navigation satellites (similar to American GPS).
These developments provide the army the ability to manage and control worldwide. In addition, higher technology detection situation makes it possible to observe, track, and target U.S. forces and their allies.
Network space-based surveillance of Russia and China monitors all the satellites orbiting the Earth, and identificeret them by their characteristic features. These functions are required to control their own satellites and attack satellites of the enemy.
— USA, China and Russia are developing electronic jamming of communications technology to conduct cyberwarfare in space, directed energy weapons (beam of energy is directed on the enemy and reduces its functionality or destroy it), the technology of satellites defeat the enemy at the same orbit ASAT missiles, land-based.
— The UN is promoting an agreement on limiting the militarization of outer space. This Convention does not take into account a possible space war. Also, there are no mechanisms of inspection of space weapons, Russia and China.
The possibilities of space development of Japan
Japanese space development are highly appreciated even in the international arena.
The first artificial satellite “Osumi” (solid-fuel missile that uses 100% of national technology) Japan launched in February 1970, ahead of China. Japanese satellite, was the first in Asia and fourth in the world.
Moreover, in 1998, was launched apparatus “Nozomi” for Mars exploration. Japan became the third country capable of launching a mission to Mars. There were other impressive results: the research unit “Hayabusa-2” sat on the asteroid “Ryugu”, which is from the Earth 300 million miles away.
Japan produces a very reliable rockets: model Н2А successfully run 35 times in a row. The percentage of successful runs is 97,5%. Moreover, Japan has participated in the program of the international space station. It has reached such high results, but in space war, it has overtaken the United States, China and Russia, have become space powers.
With regard to military action in space, in the “big seven” Japan is the most backward country.
By creating a unit space operations she finally came to the starting line. The cause of underdevelopment lies in the ideology of “peaceful space”, recorded in the ninth article of the Constitution.
The ideology of the peaceful use of space has existed for 40 years
By creating Japonsko Agency for Aeronautics and space research development was the intention to limit the use of space by Japan non-military sphere. Therefore, to emphasize peaceful purposes to non-military use, in 1969 the Japanese Parliament passed a resolution on restriction of Japanese space development the civilian sector. However, in the world, the use of outer space for peaceful purposes involves the application of technology to defence.
The reason for the crash is similar to the Galapagos ideology, “non-military use of space = peaceful use”, which lasted 40 years, was the launch in 1998 of a ballistic missile “Taepodong” North Korea.
Japan realized that is a direct threat from North Korean ballistic missiles, and in 1998 the government decided to put into orbit spy satellites.
The self-defense forces were forbidden to have satellites, so the Cabinet has set up a structure that created and control them.
A provision stating that self-defense forces can not be satellites did not meet the realities of life, and in may 2008 a law was passed about the space, which was recognized as international standards: “the Use of space for defense purposes is its peaceful use”.
In other words, this law has become an important turning point in space policy Japan. Thanks to the amendments introduced by the law of the cosmos, the Ministry of defence had the opportunity to own satellites.
Changes in the use of space, manifested in the defence project
In connection with the adoption of the law on outer space use outer space for defense purposes for the first time in the national defense program stated in December 2010 (program # 22). It included a short phrase — “to gather information with the use of outer space”.
A 25-year programme established in December 2013, it was recorded that space situational awareness is the use of space for defense purposes: “the collection of information using satellites, increasing the possibility of the command, control, information transfer and communication, and monitoring of space using optical and radar telescopes”.
In other words, defensive use of space has become more active.
In December 2018 was adopted on 30 program: “In the near future to provide excellence in such new areas as outer space, cyberspace and electromagnetic waves”. The phrase “in the near future to provide excellence” indicates a mindset in accordance with international standards.
It should also be noted that in 30 minutes the program was the strategy of “crossing fields” for mutual tasks in six areas: land, sea, air, space, cyberspace, and electromagnetic waves.
In the 20th program identified the following objectives of the self-defense forces in space:
(1) Collection of information important to the security of Japan;
(2) Constant monitoring of outer space to prevent damage to satellites used for communications and navigation;
(3) Immediate assessment of damage, localization and elimination.
These are the direct tasks of the division of space operations.
In the 30th program Japan finally reached the starting point of the implementation of military operations in space.
Combat missions of Japan in space
In 2015, I visited the American Center for strategic and budgetary assessments, where we discussed the doctrine of warfare in the air and at sea. They were extremely concerned about the damage that American satellites could cause China and Russia.
As a countermeasure, the Centre has proposed to strengthen the satellite network (so that it could withstand laser attacks and electronic interference), to launch small satellites to replace those affected, to replace the satellite unmanned aviation and to prepare the means for a counterattack.
Before Japan faced the urgent task, consisting in the reaction to the attacks of enemies.
If you examine the world’s information, it becomes clear that the fighting in space is carried out not only during the war but also in peacetime.
Japanese satellites also can be attacked with lasers or electronic interference. Therefore, you should prepare the unified state system of response to actions in space and away from the disparate space development different offices and departments. For example, to make a perfect system for space situational awareness, should operate the Cabinet of Ministers, Ministry of defense and Japan aerospace exploration Agency. For cooperation between Japan and the United States requires the cooperation of the Cabinet of Ministers, Ministry of defense, Ministry of foreign Affairs and the Japan aerospace exploration Agency.
For providing space budget meets the Cabinet, however, is to discuss the creation of space management which will be engaged in space researches in General.
The idea of space defense forces
The Ministry of defence was engaged in space-based defense strategy, defense doctrine, the medium-term programme of defence equipment and basic space program.
In addition, for the Ministry of defence had an important cooperation with the United States in the field of space. It had dialogue and consultation with the Washington-based U.S.-Japan defense course.
Finally, the Ministry of defense and defense forces Department of space operations. Also there were reports about the possible formation in the future space forces of self-defense.
And yet I was worried about some things.
In Japan space sector is administered by the strategic management of space development under the Cabinet of Ministers, but there is the Japanese aerospace exploration Agency, the satellite information centre under the Cabinet of Ministers, Mitsubishi and other private companies.
The question is, what will become of the responsibilities of this business in space, what will do the space defense forces?
The only space situational awareness is not enough to confront Russia and China. It is also necessary to develop the propulsion of space vehicles. What structure will do? What kind of relationship between this structure and the cosmic forces of self-defense? Need clear answers to these questions.
Moreover, will the space defense forces to ensure the defence of the Japanese satellites? Will they carry out the task of destruction and paralysis of the enemy’s satellites?
I analyzed the possibilities of space forces people’s liberation army of China, and I think that Japan should be an offensive tool in outer space.
In addition, Japan may appear missiles of distant radius of action, but must do so on command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance space-based technologies for targeting.
We have much to discuss: will these functions also provide space defense forces?
Moreover, the task is to coordinate the cooperation with all structures involved in information, cyber and electronic wars, which is closely related to fighting in space.
In this sense, it may be useful to the Chinese idea of integrating the four domains: force, space, cyberspace, and electromagnetic waves.
Anyway, Japan has to solve many tasks to catch up with the leaders in the space sector. All these problems should be solved step by step and continuously from each other.