Hormones play an important role in the functioning of our body. Which of them affect metabolism, weight regulation and other processes, according to sethealth.ru.
In our body there are three types of estrogen: estradiol, estrone and estriol. These three types are not interchangeable because they have a decisive influence on the female body in middle age.
- 17-beta-estradiol (E2)
Dominant in the human body estrogen is produced by the ovaries, and during menopause it education stops completely. Estradiol increases the sensitivity to insulin, adds energy, causing good mood, promotes clear thinking, good memory, ability to concentrate, normal blood pressure, optimal bone density, improved sleep patterns, sexual desire and a normal, active metabolic process.
- Scientists found in the brain, “button” slimming
The decrease in the level of estradiol in middle age leads to reduced serotonin release. Loss of serotonin leads in turn to depression, irritability, anxiety, increased sensitivity to pain, indigestion, appearance, obsessions, disruption of normal sleep rhythm. Each of these factors can slow down your metabolism, and therefore the reduction in estradiol leads to the problem of excess weight and difficulties in its release.
- Estrone (E1)
Is produced by the ovaries and adipose tissue before and after menopause. When the amount of estradiol decreases in menopause, after hysterectomy or ligation of the fallopian tubes, the body starts to produce more estrone. High levels of estrone is associated with low metabolic rate and hence the appearance of extra weight. Estrone does not prevent the undesirable changes associated with menopause, skin changes, bone, hair, blood vessels, brain and other organs. High levels of estrone also increases the risk of breast cancer and cancer of the uterine endometrium.
- Estriol (EZ)
The weakest of the human estrogens produced by the placenta during pregnancy, the body is not pregnant is usually absent. Due to weakened action it is often advertised as “safe” estrogen, but is not saying that he does not have the same advantages as estradiol (E2). Estriol does not replace lost during menopause the estradiol and does not perform its metabolic functions, so it will not restore the balance of estrogen in the menopause and will not speed up the metabolism. But if you take a sufficient amount of estriol to alleviate symptoms of menopause, this hormone can also stimulate the functioning of the uterus and mammary glands.
Progesterone prepares the body for pregnancy and carrying a pregnancy, so the woman begins to eat for themselves and for the child. The progesterone level is high during the second half of the cycle, this explains appetite during this period. Other changes, fluid retention and breast augmentation is also attributed to the activity of progesterone in preparation for pregnancy.
Progesterone slows the movement of food through the digestive tract, which allows the female body to absorb more nutrients. Progesterone also affects the brain, providing a calming effect, but in many women it leads to reduced activity and weight gain.
In the female body produce testosterone (in a tiny number compared to the male body), and with age, its content decreases. With the onset of menopause, testosterone in the female body begins to produce two times less, but it can happen at a younger age. Testosterone not only promotes healthy sexual libido, but also plays an important role in the regulation of weight. This hormone is anabolic, it promotes the growth of muscle mass and uses fat as fuel, which in turn, helps reduce weight.
Women lose up to 95% of estradiol and 50% of testosterone when the ovaries cease to function normally, it is not surprising that in middle age they are forced to fight with excess weight. Because they lose a huge amount of hormones that promote muscle growth, prevent deposition of fats and accelerate the metabolism.
DHEA is another “male” hormone produced by the adrenal glands and the ovaries before menopause. DHEA is touted as a hormone that helps to lose weight, but it is effective only for men. Modern research has proven that women receiving this hormone, are gaining weight and experiencing lots of side effects – hair loss and their appearance on the face, acne, craving sweets, restless sleep and irritability. Medications containing DHEA, are available commercially, but because the dose of hormone in them for women too high, there are often unwanted side effects.
- Thyroid hormones
TK and T4 are the main thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland. These are the main regulators of metabolic process. They regulate the energy usage and reproduction of all cells and tissues of the body. Metabolism depends on normal functioning of thyroid hormones and causes chemical reactions at the cellular level. When reducing the activity of thyroid hormones, especially when impaired functioning of the ovarian hormones, women very easily gain weight, even if you begin to eat low-calorie food.
- Insulin and glucagon
Insulin and glucagon affect the amount of glucose in blood and on the ratio of fat and muscle mass. They are called kontrrevolyutsiei hormones because they have opposite effects on blood sugar (glucose). Insulin lowers the level of glucose, causing it to move from the blood into muscle cells where it is burned and produces energy, or fat cells, where it contributes to their deposition. The speed and amount of the formation of insulin dependent on our supply of products, their combinations and the time of exposure.
The action of glucagon back to the action of insulin. When the brain realizes that the amount of sugar in the blood decreases, glucagon causes the liver to “push” glucose out of fat in the blood, with which it enters the cells and is burned. The formation of insulin affect hormones of the ovaries, and Vice versa. At high insulin levels (insulin resistance) waist woman begins to gain weight. Such a violation of the insulin response observed with polycystic ovaries and reduced estradiol.
Leptin is a newly opened protein produced in fat cells plays an important role in the regulation of fat and its distribution in the body. The secretion of leptin is disrupted in middle age and in menopause, so it also affects weight gain. Its name comes from the Greek word “leptos” which means thin. Leptin is produced in fat cells, but circulates in the blood and tells the brain about the amount of fat mass. Affecting the brain, leptin maintains normal glucose.
Leptin plays a role in reproductive function. The opportunity to continue to race is because of excessive anorexia (lack of appetite), and excessive obesity. Those suffering from these diseases of patients found high levels of leptin and dysregulation of its formation. Researchers believe that leptin helps to reduce the amount of food consumed and increase the use of energy, to encourage the burning of fat cells.
You probably noticed the difference between male and female obesity, like in humans and in animals. On the basis of this difference, the researchers conclude that estrogen, testosterone and progesterone affect the balance of leptin. Studies have been conducted on the content of leptin during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and artificial insemination.
In menopausal women there is an increased fat content and distribution on the body in the shape of an Apple and an unhealthy amount of leptin and malfunction latinboy system. It has been hypothesized that midlife women are less receptive to the leptin and this contributes to the acquisition of excess weight. Resistance to leptin explains and completeness when there are sufficient quantities in the body and also the insulin resistance syndrome of polycystic ovaries.