Some — coming from the right, others from the left. Scientists, entrepreneurs, publicists — all of them-his policies are and have a certain reputation. Their path confirms the change of intellectual and informational landscape, and the collapse of the bans, has long existed around the far right. This week Le Monde talks about a few of them.
The seminars of Jacques Sapir (Jacques Sapir) in the graduate school of social Sciences continues to gather a full house. After a few months, the economist will retire. He no longer takes students through correspondence, but dozens of young people with enthusiasm go to his classes, hoping to hear the line of thought different from that adopted in government circles. In his own words, he teaches Economics in accordance with its “unorthodox and less common views on the border of Marx and Keynes, as well as opposing the latest Sekla and Hayek”.
In addition, he teaches a course “the Transition period in the post-Soviet economic system”, one feature of which is the retelling of conversations with the Russian nomenclature in the Moscow school of Economics, where he teaches classes for several weeks out of the year. In 1988 the Ministry of education and foreign Affairs of France, sent a descendant of the Riga Jewish bourgeoisie (the family emigrated in the 1920-ies) to meet Gorbachev’s perestroika. Since then he has repeatedly returned to Russia and established relations “with many people who are today in power.”
In Paris Sapir regularly writes material for French-speaking Pro-Russian media, RT, and Sputnik. In Russia, he became a regular expert club “Valdai”, where he is one of the few French guests. “Vladimir Putin every time comes to the close of our meeting, and we have dinner together in a big hotel or residence near Moscow, where I once saw him play with dogs on the snow”, — willingly tells the economist. It was there, at the court of the Russian leader, who dreams about the collapse of Europe, the Sapir launched a fierce struggle against the European Union and the Euro, even his critics? “Or is his belief in the imminent collapse of the common currency has convinced the Russian leadership?”, asks his editor at the publishing house Seuil Genere Jacques (Jacques Généreux), who was involved in the economic program of Jean-Luc Mélenchon and is one of the most eminent professors of the Paris Institute of political studies.
“NetFront is not a fascist party”
In any case, an exit from the Eurozone became the main focus of the struggle for Jacques Sapir. For many years it was the key to his popularity among part of the left. Today, the rejection of the Euro for the economist becomes the main justification of a possible Alliance with the National front. August 21, 2015, it generated an emotional wave, appearing on the website FigaroVox in defense of “the strategy of the broad Alliance, including with the right-wing forces”, which “will put the issue of relations with the National front, or left out of his party.” According to him, “not a time for fanaticism and prohibitions in relation to each other.”
In the newspaper L’humanité said that he was shocked such “attraction to NF”. Former allies accused him of involvement in “lebanization” minds. He course dismissed all objections: “NF is changing, and these changes can reintegrate it into the space with which you can form an Alliance”. 17 September 2016, he again talked about the end of the Euro in the summer University NF in Frejus, where marine Le Pen took the first steps in the presidential campaign. The fact that he delivered by teleconference, and went there in person makes little difference. As speakers are journalist Jean-Paul Bigelli (Jean-Paul Brighelli) and terrorism expert Xavier Rofe (Xavier Raufer), it is now called “friendly” NF intellectual.
He himself, sitting in a filled with books small study, justifies his action without unnecessary emotions with surprising candor: “You know perfectly well that the NF is not a fascist party, so let’s dispense with bombastic statements!” He categorically does not recognize jus soli, in favor of granting asylum to Syrian refugees and calmly notes that “so dear NF national preferences are already largely exist in the public sector”. For his broad smile hides a thirst for controversy. “Misconduct” and “stupidity” are not values: main — violent opposition to the European Union. In Brussels, he repeatedly crossed paths with Nigel Farage (Nigel Farage), when he was the leader who spoke for Pexit party for the independence of the United Kingdom, and were about him in high regard.
Every two weeks he has lunch with his faithful follower Philippe muret (Philippe Murer), converted to traders a mathematician. Muret in the past led the anti-European Democratic forum, which was visited by Florian Filippo (Florian Philippot) and in 2014 she joined the national front and became economic adviser to marine Le Pen. “When he made that decision, I told him that it negates all chances of a University career, and with a smile says Sapir. — But I’m still in that marine Le Pen had such people for the preparation occupying the Central position in the program NF exit from the Eurozone”. As if in proof of his powers of persuasion he cites are not verifiable figures: “a Third of my students at seminars defected to the National front”.
The campaign against the European Constitution in 2005
But how he got that way, which now so frightens those who once put it in the example? In the 1992 referendum on the Maastricht Treaty did not attract his attention. He laid the foundations for the future of the single currency, however, the economist’s opinion was confined to the collapse of the Soviet Union. However, since 2002, he argues that the Euro is “not only an economic weapon, but a means of political control.” A referendum on the European Constitution in 2005 marked the start of his fight: he launched a campaign in support of “no”.
Professor meet again in this fight old comrades from the 1970-ies, when he was still a Trotskyist activist of the dissident group “Revolution!” along with Alain Lipietz (Alain Lipietz) and Christian Peak (Christian Piquet). “I was putting up posters along with those who spoke 30 years earlier: students Badiou, Communists, followers of Sevenman and advocated a “no” socialists, which later formed the Left party Jean-Luc Mélenchon”. They all appreciated how the economist supported the campaign of demonstrations and graphs. Indeed, Sapir is a well — respected scientist. Child of communism with anti-Stalinist views. His father Michel was expelled in 1950-ies of the French Communist party because he expressed outrage at the use of psychiatry by the Soviet regime.
In the Wake of the campaign for a “no” everywhere was formed discussion circles, where we saw Nicolas DuPont-Aignan (Dupont-Aignan), the followers of Philippe Séguin (Philippe Séguin) and Charles Pasqua (Charles Pasqua) like Paul-Marie kuto (Paul-Marie Coûteaux) such representatives of the anti-liberal leftist Jean-Luc Mélenchon, intellectuals like Emmanule Todd (Emmanuel Todd) and Communist Jacques Nikonoff (Jacques Nikonoff). It began to be invited to speak at universities. A young student of Higher school of Economics Florian Filippo invited him to lecture to his fellow students, but that there was no time. Its audience has expanded. He was constantly interviewed by the newspaper Le Monde. He was invited to be on television.
“Scientific approval” of Le Pen
In 2006 the same critics of European institutions, a colleague from the Paris Institute of political studies Genere Jacques (Jacques Généreux) asked him to edit the book. “After the establishment of the Left party in 2009, I suggested him to review our draft resolution on the Euro,” — says Genera. He, like Sapir, negative attitude to the single currency, however, does not support the abrupt and unilateral withdrawal. “Protecting the sovereignty to a much greater extent than we do,” he said. Sapiro was not like the vibrations of his new teammates. He was convinced that the collapse of the Euro was only a small push and began to look capable of the allies.
21 Nov 2010 he took the word at the Congress was founded by Nicolas-DuPont-Aignan small parties “get Up, Republic!” He took him with open arms, impressed by his demonstrations. “Your Analytics are, without a doubt, will be of interest to marine Le Pen, you don’t would like to spend with her?” — offered in turn Paul-Marie kuto. This former follower of Pasqua and Séguin joined the ranks of the far right and tried to find the NF lacked people. In January 2011 he was invited by Jacques Sapir in General States of independence along with Eric Zemuron (Eric Zemmour), Marie-France Garo (Marie-France Garaud) and Renaud Camus (Renaud Camus). The meeting was supposed to serve as a kind of airlock chamber before speaking with the leader of the NF.
The economist remained cautious. And did not want to appear with her in public. “Lunch was held after the summer University NF in nice in September 2011 at the pizzeria near the headquarters of NetFront, says kuto. Sapir talked to me about him with enthusiasm. In any event, marine Le Pen concluded that it gave scientific approval to exit from the Eurozone”. Some time later, Sapir was with her in the broadcast of France 2, and its selection of materials contained numerous articles. The NF program provided for a unilateral and immediate withdrawal from the Eurozone, as like the economist. In 2012, Sapir has supported Nicolas DuPont-Aignan with its “alternative plan for the salvation of Europe” (a protest against federalism and the single currency), however, marine Le Pen quoted him at their rallies.
Jean-Luc Mélenchon, “europeist”
The left realized how far away from them, a former ally in the struggle against Europe? In July 2013, the Judgment of sur images website organized a meeting of Jean-Luc Mélenchon and Jacques Sapir, who saw it as a “debate, banned dominating the press.” The discussion identified primarily by their disagreement over the abandonment of the single currency: a necessary condition and a means of solving all the economic difficulties for Sapir and weapons of renegotiation for Mélenchon.
“I agree with most analysts Jacques Sapir, and his reflections form the basis of our documents,” — said the head of the left party. The economist thought that “europeista”, and despite his calm tone, a compliment that was not called. Since then, their connection has weakened. Mélenchon less Sapir mentions at meetings. Under the influence of Florian Filippo and his allies “unilateral exit from the Eurozone” has become one of the key proposals of marine Le Pen. Sapir was an outspoken critic of Mélenchon and the Left front, which, in his opinion, “gave the Natsfronta a monopoly on the rhetoric against the Euro”.
Since then, the economist and did not calm down. In 2012, marine Le Pen was the only candidate who stood for hard exit from the Eurozone. “It cost me 3-4% in 2012”, — said today she. Under pressure part natsfronta she agreed to tone shocking as the proposal for a referendum. Jacques Sapir is literally obsessed with a single currency and does not stop the fight. In the first round he “definitely” will vote for Nicolas DuPont-Aignan. On the prospects of the second round he goes vague: “For me, the real Republican front is an anti — European front”.