The great migration. Why Moscow demolished five-story building

The program was prepared to solve the problem of 300 houses and 300 billion rubles. Sobyanin has increased the scale of the program, but its design remains the same. It replaces all the rules of the regime of manual control. Created under the Fund — a new construction Corporation. But our history provides ample examples of what happens when all powers are concentrated in the same hands, and all restrictions are being demolished.

Protest will not be

The scale of the programme to demolish five-story building — the relocation of more than half a million people coupled with submitted to the Duma a package of amendments to the legislation (including the possibility of eviction through the courts) draw a grim picture of the black designs. To evict a million-plus city in New Moscow for the developer lobby. However, what is probably more the frustration tolerance of the townspeople, who once again toppled the bloody regime of mayor. And even support — when viewed from the side of hope for tarnobrzeski rise amazing.

Moscow has implemented the world’s largest program of resettlement of five-story building for 15 years, carried more than a thousand five-storey buildings. Relocated about three hundred thousand people. No disturbances occurred. This does not mean that it was not dissatisfied, was. But there was social discontent. I would venture to suggest that that is what Sergei Sobyanin and taken into account in the first place, initiating new demolition. The program, which today provides the mayor with a view to guaranteeing citizens one to one repeats Luzhkov: the flat is equal to living space with the same number of rooms in the same area and, if possible, the district that housed the demolished house. Three hundred thousand already displaced and generally happy — it seems to be a representative sample for the forecast. And it is strange to expect a mass protest by half a million people, real estate which will rise in price by 30%. Fit, on the contrary, to lament the mass bribery of voters.

Why is it done?

In Moscow under Khrushchev and Brezhnev were built about ten thousand five-story building. A little less than two thousand demolished remains of eight thousand. The difference between carried and standing in the technologies of production — quality apartments are the same (except for a five-story Stalin-era apartment houses with three-meter ceilings, but until the demolition is not prepared). Condition of remaining different, is better, is very bad that today we could recognize the emergency. After 15 years the emergency will be from one third to one half. Be home with disabled water and electricity, garbage disposal clogged, with falling balconies — a lot of houses, hundreds of them. The five-story building and lives today not the rich people — the more, the more there will be to leave those who are able to maintain the building at his own expense. In Moscow today, no ghetto, but they can be. The process of creating ghettos experienced dozens of cities.

To avoid this, the house must be repaired. But it is impossible technologically. Links to Berlin where the GDR massively renovated five-story building, are not working in Berlin houses are built a different technology with a different quality and it is a rental house that is easy to relocate during the repairs. We do not know how to fix, and this is a serious “do not know”. If we do (there is an example in the street Mishina, 32) — it turns out more costly than building new housing. Or house does not become stronger, and technological systems — more reliable. The taps cease to flow for six months, and the battery one winter break, but then it all starts again.

The government has already collected about 300 billion rubles for the repair (fee is included in the rent). If the money is not to spend, they will be taken — for example, subsidies to the Chechen Republic. At least, I think so Moscow officials. The 300 billion — the starting point of the program. By law, the money collected for the repair, can only be spent on the overhaul.

300 billion rubles, about 300 houses, located in the state of near emergency, on the one hand, and about eight thousand five-story building, remaining in Moscow generally, the settling which takes 3.5 trillion rubles, on the other, determine the contours of the program, or its internal dynamics. The mayor brought the problem about the first two digits, he decides it through the enlargement of the scale. The scale is increased on the order of eight thousand five-story building and a budget of 3.5 trillion.

In the near term this opens up the possibilities for maneuver. Least of all Moscow government is going in the election year EN masse to evict citizens from their homes through the courts. They are not crazy, they want a completely different. They choose the area of five-story building, where residents want to move, will be demolished and replaced, and residents will be grateful to them, and will remain the many those who would desire relocation. Such areas are many: cost to declare a new program of demolition, and the Prefecture was inundated with requests from citizens “when we demolished?!!”

What the program no

The field of five-story buildings occupy the Central position in the city after Moscow ring railway — now the Moscow Central ring. It’s a belt with a width of approximately five to seven kilometers. It is uneven, with breaks, but, anyway, there’s a vast urban area. The program of reconstruction of such areas should have clear managerial design. Planning tools such renovations known and more or less same in space from Berlin to Singapore.

The Moscow program is estimated by the government at 3.5 trillion rubles, and outside experts put the number at five to six trillion. In order to implement a financial plan is required. Validity — 20 years. It is clear that in this perspective it will be approximate, but the answer to several questions is needed. It should be profitable? The break-even? Socially oriented? How much housing are you going to sell on the market? What is the prognosis of the market’s response to your intervention? This housing is what class? Such a plan is any of the developer. It can be detailed, may be generalized; the accuracy of the prediction varies with time. But it can not be.

In the former five-story building can occur in confined areas the new generation transit urban fabric or new subcentre. Each solution has its pros and cons. For the rich of the North-West of Moscow and the poor South-East, they are not the same. To answer the question of where and what to do need a strategy of spatial development. This document can be graphic, text, images, without, can be called the master plan, may — urban development policy, can be made legally, may be the program of the mayor. But it can not be.

You need to understand how what you are going to build. Design eight thousand houses is impossible, but not to answer this question at all is also impossible. It will be a high-rise building or not? There will be streets with red lines or a road among the meadows with houses? There will be yards the size of a football field or a tennis court? There will be alleys? Boulevards? There is underground Parking or planar? These are questions about the way the environment, without which it is impossible to order anything architects. For answer there is a tool — spatial rules. It can be designed with varying degrees of detail, can be called FBD (form-based design), or 3D model of the territory, or something else. But it can not be.

© RIA Novosti | go to fotobiennial one of the 5-storey houses in Moscow, prepared for demolition

In order to build, you need architects. For each quarter, the individuality of the architect — the only source of the uniqueness of urban development, if it is created so, at a time. But in order to develop the design process to such an extent, you need to understand how to manage it. Not a faceless designers, and craftsmen. Need architectural policy document, which exists in all civilized cities. Values, principles, and procedures for the adoption and passage projects should be described. It may be called, to be part of urban policy or exist separately, but it can not be.

And nothing. Exactly. It’s so weird that even causes surprise. Moreover, even no intention to develop it all. Don’t know, maybe somewhere in the secret laboratories of the Marat Husnullin Shakirzjanovich someone who works (he designed the subway), but in any of the legal institutions of the Moscow government, one does not so busy.


In the State Duma in the first reading a package of laws that provide the program. It involves the establishment of a Fund to promote renovation of the housing stock in the city of Moscow. This “Fund of assistance to Fund” uses of funds of the budget of Moscow, will have access to loans and means of the citizens, he builds and implements constructed for the obligations of responsible city. That is, its status is new Corporation.

The demolition of houses is carried out by the territorial principle — the demolition of the blocks or neighborhoods. The government establishes the list of “apartment buildings, which fall outside the subject of renovation of the territory, are similar to the constructive characteristics of apartment houses” Khrushchev and renderedmessage time. In their place, new housing is built, the residents will receive the same number of meters and number of rooms, but enlarged kitchens, bathrooms and corridors (if it’s not the waiting that can get more).

Notice that the notion of “similar construction characteristics” difficult to identify legally correct. It should be borne in mind here that. When Nikita Khrushchev came up with the five-story building, he has launched a kind of competition between builders and architects to find the cheapest project is described in detail in his memoirs. Early building (1956-1962) used all the then existing design scheme, each sought to prove that his development better. Therefore, under the definition of “similar construction characteristics” include all the houses which were built in Moscow with the era of constructivism to post-Soviet reforms, house-building factories, except, as I understand it, the houses with wooden beams. Although hell knows, maybe somewhere in 1956, was built this five-storey building-Stalinka. Demolish in accordance with this wording can be any house, except monolithic. Constructivist, Stalinist, Brezhnev, a five-story, nine — all the same, everywhere “the same structural characteristics”.

The law has the following wording: “In case of trained… documentation for planning the territory provides for the placement of objects of capital construction, permitted use, and (or) the parameters of which do not conform to the permitted use… the rules of land use and development, and (or) if the types of permitted use of land… not correspond to the types of permitted use of land plots established by the rules of land use and development, together with the preparation of documentation for planning the territory is preparing changes in the rules of land use and development…. The decision on amendments to the rules of land use and development is not required.”

It’s even in abbreviated form unreadable wording, but the gist of it is this. We have many laws, how and where to build. There are defined functions, sizes of buildings, their number, height and many other things. All this is summarized in the master plan and land use and development rules (rules of land use and development). So, the new law for the regulation of any territory selected under renovation, cancels. Here you can build from scratch what they want and how they want. That will draw, it will be legal.

There is still such: “In order to implement the decision on renovation in the preparation of documentation on territory planning, implementation of architectural and construction designing, construction, reconstruction of objects of capital construction requirements of technical regulations, codes of practice, including sanitary-epidemiological requirements, requirements for fire and other safety are applied, if other requirements are not established by the regulatory legal act of the city of Moscow”. And again: “If for the preparation of documentation on territory planning, the project documentation requires deviation from the requirements, established by technical regulations, codes of practice, including sanitary-epidemiological requirements, requirements of fire and other security, according to the decision of the authorized body of Executive power of the city of Moscow allowed the issuance of special technical conditions.”

We have a monstrous building codes (building regulations) and Sanpins (sanitary regulations and norms). We have requirements for insulation, two hours of direct sun in the Windows in the day — which date back to the techniques of the 1920-ies on the fight against tuberculosis. We have a new school on 1024 require three acres of free land. It is in the Moscow conditions three times more expensive than the school and built the school spends a quarter of its budget on the maintenance and protection of the territory, which it is absolutely not necessary. While in England, Singapore, Hong Kong, America, Canada, the same school is ha. Dozens of such examples. We have a very crude PHC, which we will not officially accept, and a legacy of Luzhkov’s Genplan, which we did not cancel. Anyone who dealt with construction in Moscow, knows how terribly neglected, absurd, ugly system. Everyone wanted to carry her to hell. And here.

It is difficult to Wade through citations of the bill, but you can not imagine what music would have sounded in these words of any developer or architect, if he had allowed it. In the territories selected for the demolition and new construction, abolished all building codes, and Sanitary regulations of the civil defense and emergency situations (civil defense and emergencies), including firefighters. It’s fantastic, it just can’t be. You can build whatever you like, and no you are not a decree, and all this under the law!


I think the diagnosis of the state of the program of demolition of five-story the following today. It was prepared in order to solve the problem of 300 houses and 300 billion rubles. This action programme for effective management in an emergency situation. He demolishes all limits and supersedes all norms mode of manual control. Sobyanin has increased the scale of the program, but its design remains the same. Front team platoon.

This program is derived from the level of civilization of society, how problem-solving skills it has, so to speak, “on average”. Only from unfamiliarity with the issue can be seen in the program the interests of the development lobby. If we respected private property and competition, we would have howled, as a private development this law in Moscow is cancelled. Next to privateers appears to the Corporation that may: a) select and clean up any area of the city, if there are no historical buildings or buildings with monolithic structures; b) to build housing of any density and height, even the skyscrapers, though the cottages; C) to not care at all building regulations; d) to borrow money and the citizens under the guarantee of the state budget, and for the promotion — just out of the budget. And all — by law! This Corporation has only one duty — to resettle citizens in the new houses with the increase ratio of the area of 1.3. It is impossible to compete. Private development in Moscow ends. The club gas burners came Gazprom.

The only counterweight to the appetite of this giant is the good will of the Moscow administration. Will not give. Will not give?

I believe that Sobyanin is an outstanding urban reformer, he achieved remarkable results in the modernization of the environment of Moscow and will be included with this history. Someone thinks he’s a petty crook, stealing for the construction of the tile and seedlings in the hall. Everyone understands in his own way. But where is the guarantee that this new tool, invented for themselves, will not be used by others for other purposes?


The program of demolition of five-story building is designed for 20 years, but it is unlikely that the current mayor will manage to Moscow in so long. I think our history gives enough examples of what happens when all powers are concentrated in the same hands, and all restrictions are being demolished. Should have release a guide for reform where to write in large print: you can’t do that, because it is impossible never. You get killed by your own weapons. But something not yet released.

“I told him a thousand times: “You program standard superagonist. He will be raking in all material values, which can reach, then you take the space, sokolitsa and stop time””. It is of the Strugatsky, “Monday begins on Saturday”, Roman Oira-Oira criticizes Professor vybegallo. In my opinion, this is the “Fund of assistance to Fund”. With 300 billion — sums to give the dinosaur to hatch and Mature, the question of its further power is not yet clear. But rest assured, he will find their own food.

Moreover, every Governor wants to afford his dinosaur, they begin to multiply. The same five-story building are everywhere! Well all Moscow? Worse than the suburbs?

What happens?

Relocated — relocated. Do not doubt the ability of the Marat Husnullin Shakirzjanovich to build a new home. And who would doubt, look at the New Moscow: five million square meters per year. View on New Moscow: the new house — and no quality street, square, Park, neighborhood, Park, Boulevard never came. But no, parks is. They look wildly in the fields and forests due to the absence of a master plan.

You can probably argue how the house will be modern. Khrushchev norm of living space per person — first 9, then 11 square meters. The mayor believes that the new house will stand for a hundred years. Apartments are given on a “one to one”, it turns out that we broadcast typology of the Khrushchev housing for the next hundred years. But it’s economic realities that it is hard to argue. But what exactly does not work — is the creation of the city.

The urban environment is not a house plus home. The environment is full of streets, squares, gardens and parks. Streets is not without trade, services and catering; cafes and restaurants don’t work without offices, otherwise they have no one day; the offices do not work without Parking. And just there, in a quality environment in the center of Moscow, there are about a hundred interrelated functions. People it is possible to relocate to other apartments — but what will you do with the business? Hairdressing and dry cleaning, cafes and bakeries, vegetable shops and delis, tailors and Shoe repair, fitness and dance schools, there exist exactly insofar as they know people use them. Their owners build reputation, the cost of doing business is the number and quality of clients. Their own thousands! You just ruined, and anybody in a head does not come that it should think. If we, as in Soviet times, lived near a grocery store and live.

But it’s not just their job, money and life, which you consume without even noticing it. It is also the quality of the environment, because to build it all back — years of effort and money. Here you have created a business in a New Moscow — many have created? You ask people what it’s like to open cafes in Moscow. Yes, these hands wearing need! And without this just work and sleeping areas. Without this we will never get in the city.

© RIA Novosti, Vladimir Astapkovich | go to photosangelina playing Board games in Antibase TimeTerria in Moscow

In principle, the demolition of five-story building is a huge chance. But in the existing configuration it is a chance for people again; the chance for the nationalization of development — two and no chance for the city to three. People will get flat 30% more expensive. The city will get a dense high-rise environment typical of the new generation.

And no one to defend the city because of the protest will not, and if so — interested politicians. That is interesting to those who expect to profit from it. For private development, no one to fight will not, but certainly for a small business especially. Someone else’s private property in Russia is not appreciated, but his own apartment and 30% more expensive — Yes, it’s a thing. It is clear to the electorate.

And all this — for the next hundred years. I have one hope — for Sergei Sobyanin. There is no other. And if you carefully look at it, you too will not be. Is our civilization, she is able to solve their problems here. Can only resist this power, and that if you wish.