Life is movement. What are the benefits of exercise for health? How to train? The research team headed by the University of Cambridge in the UK recently published a study in the Lancet Global Health showed that a minimum of 150 minutes of average aerobic exercise capacity or 75 minutes of exercise the maximum aerobic power, or a combination of equivalent power exercises during the week on a global scale could annually prevent at least 3.9 million premature deaths among adults aged 40 to 74 years. In China the number exceeds one million. It is also the first time scientists have assessed the impact of exercise on premature death on a global scale.
Different intensity of exercise suit differentpeople
What is the average aerobic exercise capacity? What is the difference between them and exercise the maximum aerobic power?
Haipin Liu, Deputy Director of the Department of sports Sciences Medical University Wenzhou, told the reporter of the Science and Technology Daily, what is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic exercise lies in the contrast energy of the substrate. Aerobic exercises are movements that consume large amounts of oxygen passing through the heart, lungs and other organs, which occurs due to the complete oxidation of energy substances such as glucose and fat. It provides the body with energy needed for prolonged exercise. The intensity of aerobic exercise can be calculated by tracking heart rate during exercise, the average intensity is usually about 70% of the upper value. That is, the heart rate during exercise = (maximum heart rate — pulse rate at rest before exercise) / 2 + heart rate before exercise where maximal heart rate can be calculated according to the scheme 220 — your age.
Liu Halpin noted that the heart rate at rest prior to exercise, each person is different, and individual differences are very large, so each person’s decision about the intensity of exercise in each age group will be different. During high intensity exercise, even if the oxygen-transport system in the body working at its maximum, the oxygen consumption will still be far from the desired level of consumption. At this point in the human body supply of energy is converted into fosfatno and glycolytic energy systems.
Energy substrates vospalennah energy systems are adenosine diphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP). ATP is already contained in human bone, and it is enough energy consumption to within 1-2 seconds. The body also contains KF, which is able to give energy for the next 4-6 seconds. Popaganda system is indispensable and the fastest source of energy, provides the energy for sporting events of high intensity, for example sprinting or jumping. Energy substance glycolytic energy system is contained in muscle glycogen, and during glycolysis is not affected fats. During a short-term loads if energy vospalennah system is not enough to be used glycolytic system. After the release of energy produces lactic acid, which muscles hurt. A typical exercise using the energy obtained by glycolysis are running the 400 meters and weight training.
Liu Halpin also reminded that the different intensity of exercises appropriate for different groups of people: for example, high-intensity exercises for people who train systematically and also young people, while middle-aged and elderly can’t exercise with high intensity, as this can lead to sports injuries and other problems. Everyone also needs to assess your condition and determine the appropriate mode of training. For example, is quite full of people can damage knee and ankle joints, if you choose running or climbing. The best way to go swimming, Cycling and other exercises.
You can prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes
Liu Halpin stresses the importance of exercise for health. For example, they train the heart and lungs, improve cardiomegaly function, maintain normal blood pressure, increase the concentration of high density cholesterol in the blood, maintain normal levels of total cholesterol and also reduce triglyceride levels and preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. They also speed up the metabolism in the body, heart rate and blood flow and stimulate the body to continuous heat. A large number of end products of metabolism in the body may appear later. In addition, exercise contribute to enhancing the cellular activity in the body, activate resting immune cells and increase immune function of the body, effectively improving the body’s ability to resist germs.
The results of a study published in the scientific journal Cell, demonstrated the analysis of the effects of exercise on the molecular level, proteomics, metabolism, lipidomic and transcriptomic.
The research team, led by medical school at Stanford University, recruited a group of 36 volunteers aged 40 to 75 years. After a night of the hunger strike they carried out functional testing of the cardio-pulmonary system on a treadmill. The actual time of tests amounted to 6-18 minutes. The research team found that after exercise, from the point of view of fatty acid oxidation, the levels of acylcarnitine and free fatty acids increased, indicating that fatty acid oxidation are activated by exercise. In other words, only a few minutes of exercise can burn fat. At the same time, physical exercise may also contribute to glucose uptake and free fatty acids by tissues of the heart and skeletal muscles. The study also showed that after exercise in the human body there is a powerful activation of the immune system which stimulates increased cell growth and cell migration. These molecules can actively participate in the restoration and transformation of muscle tissue, increase blood clotting and the processes of hemostasis. In addition, also changes the signal channels associated with blood vessels and hemostasis: this suggests that exercise and cardiovascular health are closely related.
Liu Halpin reported that there are also studies proving that exercise can improve the sensitivity of the muscle cells of the body to insulin, increase the expenditure of insulin, improve insulin resistance and reduce the risk of diabetes. In addition, there is evidence that exercise can reduce the risk of bladder cancer, adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, kidney cancer and stomach cancer.
A significant influence on memory improvement
Experts say that the relationship between exercise and health in recent years is the focus of research, and therefore achieve different results.
July 14 report published in the journal Science, the research group from the University of California in San Francisco, also showed that in the hippocampus in mice that move more, and mice, which poured the blood from the first, formed about two times more new neurons. The hippocampus is the part of the brain responsible for learning and memory.
Professor, University of California San Francisco’s Saul Villeda (Saul A. Villeda) said that the cumulative result of these studies, apparently, is that physical exercise can improve brain health by stimulating the liver to excrete more protein GPLD1. Subsequent experiments showed that GPLD1 may not cross the blood-brain barrier to directly impact the brain. On the contrary, it can stimulate tissue and cellular changes in other parts of the body, and these tissues will produce more GPLD1, which ultimately will lead to direct changes in neurotransmitters, genes, and cells of the brain, thereby improving cognitive abilities.
“Many scientific studies show that exercise can not only make people more energetic and focused, but also to improve memory and other intellectual abilities,” — Liu Haipin said that exercise can regulate the process of excitation and inhibition in the brain and also contribute to the excitation of the Central brain cells. The state of excitement constantly increases the viability of brain cells and the adaptive capacity of the cortex of the brain, making the mind more flexible and savvy, as well as improving memory. Physical exercise can also help to prevent overexertion of the cranial nerves, get rid of negative thoughts and reduce stress. In addition, after exercise and improving sleep quality.
Aerobic exercise should not be too long
The researchers analyzed cause of premature death and found that an inactive way of life is 6.4% of the total number of all causes, which is comparable to death because of Smoking. In addition to premature death, physical inactivity can lead to obesity, hypertension, diabetes and other diseases. Liu Haipin said that years of research have proven that exercise can prevent some diseases and improve health. The discovery of the fact that exercise can prevent premature death of adults, is another important factor in favor of the systematic physical exercises. Moreover, in China the systematic exercise prevented more than one million premature deaths per year, reminds the public “to include physical activity in the agenda”.
But Liu Haipin also emphasizes that excessive exercise can lead to serious health risks. They can cause dehydration, anemia, dizziness and heart palpitations and even cause renal failure.
In recent years, from time to time heard the news about the sudden death of students during physical exercises, especially this year, when after the resumption of classes in schools when the outbreak of the novel coronavirus have been several cases of premature death of the students in the N95 masks during exercise. Liu Haipin said it reminds us that the sport must be approached intelligently and scientifically.
It is recommended to undergo a medical examination before training, to exclude the presence of latent diseases of the body. Can’t do sports if you have too high blood pressure, you can feel the heat or fatigue. When you exercise you should also independently assess your condition. For example, if you have any breathing problems or pain in the chest, you should stop immediately. If the symptoms do not disappear after the cessation of exercise, should consult a doctor.
Liu Halpin emphasized that the execution time of aerobic exercise should not be too long. If you run on a hard surface, the opposing force when you push off can damage the knee joints, so you need to choose suitable running shoes.