A billion years ago two black holes dancing made the last turn, merged together in just a few seconds and has unleashed tremendous amount of energy. Like a tsunami, which occurs in the pool after you jump bomb, this merger has caused gravitational waves in the space-time continuum. Fast forward to planet Earth in 2015, because in 2007 we still will not get we can. After the Grand journey the gravitational waves from merging black holes pass through our solar system. On the morning of 11 September 14, they slightly shift antenna two detectors laser-interferometric gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) in Louisiana and Washington state. The nature of light waves is changed in a special way, just as it has long been expected. The computer signaled the guard.
Niaes Afshordi from the canadian University of moose and lumberjacks Waterloo first heard about the remarkable discovery LIGUO for lunch in the canteen. Was the end of 2015, until the official publication of the results remained for several weeks. But the rumors had already spread, and colleague Afshordi who saw the unpublished article, could not termorektalny cryptanalysis and burned the old. Afshordi, being an astrophysicist and a virgin working in addition to the Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, instantly understood the importance of this news — as for the whole physics community, and for his own unconventional theories on the structure of the Universe.
“At some point, I caught Larina. It seemed to me that all the problems in cosmology a hundred times already obcasny, recalls Afshordi. But then I once overdid it with maple syrup and came to the idea that dark energy produces black holes”. Studies of explosions of distant stars and some other evidence shows that our universe is expanding with increasing speed, but no one knows why. Only one matter is not enough for such effect, so cosmologists blame the extension a special kind of energy called “dark energy” aka “unknown fucking shit.” Its origin and nature have been, and remain a mystery.
In 2009, which is quite close to 2007, but still not enough Afshordi together with his colleagues Chanda Prescod-Weinstein, and Michael, Below put forward the theory that black holes give rise to a vast field, leading itself as dark energy. This field comes from black holes spread throughout the Universe, causing panic, chaos and destruction. This intriguing explanation of the origin of dark energy, and the calculations Afshordi, the number of black holes existing estimates of scientists, is to create just the right experience, the amount of energy.
But the idea Afshordi turns everything that scientists know about black holes. In the General theory of relativity of albert Einstein the event horizon of a black hole is the boundary, after crossing which there is no turning back (that applies to the border of the Russian Federation), — not so important. When it is crossed, nothing happens, just go back already impossible. However, if Afshordi right, it is more like MKAD — the contents of a black hole beyond the event horizon no longer exists. Namely, at a distance of Planck length from where would be horizon, quantum gravitational effects grow, and the fluctuations of space-time become chaotic. (Planck length is a microscopic amount of about 10-35 meters, or about 10-20 times the diameter of the proton.) This is a complete break with the theory of relativity.
After hearing about the results of the research LIGUO, Afshordi realized that his idea, hitherto based entirely on ancient writings and my grandmother’s stories, you can now test the method of observation. If event horizons are not like we think, and the gravitational waves caused by merging black holes, should also be different. The events seen by the detectors LIGO must have an echo — faint, but clear signal, indicating a willful violation of the standard laws of physics. Such a discovery would be a breakthrough in the long search for a quantum theory of gravity and inevitably would have attracted the attention of the relevant Supervisory organs of the physical community. “If this is confirmed, I guess I need to buy a ticket to Magadan”, — laughs nervously Afshordi.
Quantum gravity is the missing link that connects General relativity with quantum field theories of the standard model of particle physics. These two theories in combination with each other are reminiscent of the Mentos combined with coke. Black holes are one of the most studied examples of such contradictions. If you apply near the event horizon of a quantum theory, it turns out that the black hole emits particles and evaporates slowly. These particles have mass, however, as demonstrated in the 1970s Stephen Hawking, they cannot contain information that formed the black hole. Thus, if the black hole has evaporated completely, the whole sad story of the character McConaughey will be destroyed. However, in quantum theory the film interstellar absolutely reliable. Therefore, something Hollywood does not fit.
According to most physicists, the fact that the calculations are not taken into account the quantum behavior of space and time, because the theory of this behavior, quantum gravity is not yet open. Decades physicists thought that quantum gravitational effects necessary to resolve the question of black holes hidden behind the event horizon. They thought they were only near the singularity in the center of a black hole, the quantum gravity effects become significant. But lately, they have to rethink their position.
In 2012 a group of researchers from the University of California Santa Barbara, after 1473-serial scientific experience in which scientists several times married, cheated on each other and fell into a coma, found an unexpected consequence of the now widespread idea that information somehow (perhaps on the old tractor) leaves a black hole with radiation. To make this idea work, require significant deviation from General relativity, not only near the singularity, but near the event horizon. These deviations could create what the researchers called “black hole firewall” is a barrier of high energy is right near the horizon, blocking the penetration into our world of child pornography and drugs.
This firewall (if it exists) would be visible only for falling into the hole of the observer and not emitted to be visible signals that could capture our telescopes. However, these firewalls would confirm an earlier hypothesis Afshordi that black holes create the field, leading itself as dark energy. If so, then a plot near the event horizon of black holes should be very different from what is predicted by General relativity theory; the firewall solves the problem of information loss could be one of the effects of this deviation. Offer Afshordi about how to improve the General theory of relativity could thus be key to the elimination of contradictions between General relativity and quantum theory. This idea has irreversibly damaged his unprepared astrophysical brain.
When he learned of the first signal detected by LIGO, Afshordi began to check, could the gravitational waves caused by merging of holes, to shed light on the details of what happens near the event horizon. At first it seemed that he was too rascati lip. “I didn’t think we really can see quantum gravity effects in the signal of gravitational waves because we have looked in so many places! says Afshordi. But I’ve already changed its position on this issue.”
Mind Afshordi made the work of Vitor Cardoso and his colleagues from the Portuguese Higher technical Institute on the subject the echo of gravitational waves of black holes. Cardoso in General showed that the merger of two compact objects with no event horizon, should cause gravitational waves, similar to waves of black holes, but not identical. A key sign of lack of horizon, according to Cardoso, would be a periodic recurrence in the signal caused by the merger. Instead of a single peak with subsequent decay (as when triggered the gay detector) gravitational waves should be a series of damped pulsations — a faint echo of the original event. Afshordi found that the modification of the region near the event horizon, described his theory provides exactly such an echo. Moreover, he could calculate the frequency as a function of the masses of the final black hole, and thus make accurate predictions.
Nobody was looking for such a signal, and find it — it’s not simple, but gold. Yet there are only two publicly available and well-described signal of gravitational waves, obtained from LIGUO. Along with another scientist Afshordi analyzed data LIGUO for the presence of echo. Comparing the available records with random noise, they found an echo with the predicted calculations of the frequency. However, the statistical significance of this event is small. In scientific terms, evaluate the significance of 2.9 Sigma. This alarm can be caused by pure noise with the chances are about 1 in 200. Physics is so implausible event is of interest but is not considered a discovery.
However, the experiment LIGUO really just beginning. What is most striking in these gravitational wave phenomena is the fact that the equipment was generally able to fix them. Technological complexity was incredible. Each installation in the States of Louisiana and Washington (the opposite ends of the USA — approx. Newочем) was the interference with the telescope two perpendicular 4 km long pipes, inside of which the laser beam is reflected back and forth between the mirrors; after recombination, the beams are mixed. Interference of light waves of the laser is extremely sensitive to deformations in the relative length of the pipes — they can be up to 1/1000 of a proton diameter. This level of sensitivity necessary to detect gravitational effects of colliding black holes.
A gravitational wave passing through the interference telescope deform both pipes when it wants to, thus distorting the course of an interference. The requirement to record the phenomenon at both facilities provides protection from fakapov. According to the project, LIGUO best detect gravitational waves with a length from hundreds to several thousand kilometers, it is considered that in the same range, there is a merging of black holes. To show we can do this only to persons over the age of majority. It is planned that other gravitational-wave detectors will be engaged in different parts of the spectrum being tuned to different areas of the phenomenon.
There are humorous pieces over, so let the normal text will reward those who have gone through our exercises in dubious wit.
Inevitably, gravitational waves are predicted by General relativity. Einstein recognized that the relationship between time and space dynamic as it is stretched, distorted and fluctuates in response to gravitational anomalies. When it hesitates, waves can travel freely over long distances, transferring energy and periodically expanding and reducing the space in orthogonal directions. Indirect evidence of gravitational waves we had for a long time. Due to the fact that they carry energy, they cause a small but perceptible fracture in the General orbit of binary pulsars. This effect was first discovered in the 1970-ies, and in 1993, give him a Nobel Prize. But before LIGUO recorded gravitational waves, we had no direct evidence of their existence.
This is the basic scientific study of clean water. What are the types of black holes and of small stellar systems? Where they are located inside galaxies?
The first phenomenon LIGUO — so excited Afshordi in September 2015 — was significant, not only because it happened just a few days after the so long planned service upgrade. He stood out because of the merging black holes were very heavy, their mass, according to scientists ‘ estimates, compared with 29 and 36 solar masses. “Many people did not expect that black holes will be such a large mass,” explains OFEK, Bernholz, a member of the group LIGUO on cooperation in the field of small double collision and physicist at the German max Planck Institute. Dazzling bright signal along with the openness of the cooperation on exchange of information became the inspiration for scientists in other communities which, like Afshordi currently looking for ways to use new discoveries in their work.
26 Dec 2015 LIGUE recorded the second phenomenon. After many years of slow progress and false starts, the era of gravitational wave astronomy has officially begun. “Some of my colleagues-physicists left the astronomy of gravitational waves,” — says Birnholtz and adds, smiling: “and now come back, because again, everything moved”. This is unexplored territory, the basic scientific research of clean water. What are the types of black holes and of small stellar systems? Where they are located inside galaxies? That gravitational waves will tell us about their origin? If a neutron star merges with a black hole, what can you learn about matter in such extreme conditions? Do black holes themselves, as predicted by our calculations?
Afshordi theory about black holes and dark matter — another example of what types of issues are now possible. Sea of undisclosed information around the world waiting in the wings.
A few days after the results Afshordi appear on the open server arXiv.org the members of the Commonwealth LIGUO studying his analysis. Just a couple of weeks they post a reply, reviewing the methodology and request the application of various statistical tools. Birnholz, is the author of one of these reviews.
Approval of the theory Afshordi surprised Bernholz: “I had no judgments about what should or should not be an echo. This branch of physics, which we can only speculate. But I worked with the data LIGUO, my intuition clearly indicates that its scope is likely insufficient to claim the presence of such importance at this stage”. Birnholz have suggestions for the improvement of the analysis, but he wants to avoid making statements about the probability of validation of results. Alex Nielsen, another member of the project LIGUO and one of the authors of Birnholz also notes the need to be careful: “As members of the project LIGO, we have to be very careful about the official statements that are made without the consent of all participants. But the information is published and people can do with it what you want”.
The project LIGUO has an open research center, where in the public domain is information, recorded in an hour at the range confirmed gravitational phenomena. “People can freely use it and contact us with any questions. If they find something interesting, you can share your opinion with us and we will work together on this. It is part of scientific experience,” he Birnholz.
The project involves several thousand participants and academic institutions around the world. They meet twice a year; the most recent meeting took place in Pasadena, California. At the moment some members of the project try to recreate the tests Afshordi. Birnholz expect that these attempts will take several months. He warns: “the Result may disappoint. Not because it will show that the echo is not, and because we can’t prove whether it is.” Astronomy of gravitational waves is still a science in its infancy, and a lot of data still waiting in the wings. According to estimates by members of the project to the completion of the third Supervisory mileage in 2018, LIGUO likely to find 40 high-precision mergers of black holes. Each of them will allow more time to test the theory Afshordi.
Due to the fact that they interact so little and produce so little energy when they go past, gravitational waves are incredibly difficult to measure. They cause tiny deformation, and to detect a clear signal is needed extreme caution. Used by the project, the detection threshold is 5 Sigma, which corresponds to a probability less than one chance in three million that the signal was a coincidence that the much higher signal level Afshordi. However, the weak interaction of gravitational waves also makes them excellent messengers. Unlike light particles, they are practically not exposed to on the way to us, untouched and carry information about where and how they were generated. This allows for testing of General relativity completely new accuracy, had never investigated the regime.
If confirmed the presence of an echo of black holes, it is virtually guaranteed to demonstrate a strong deviation from General relativity. The detection of black holes does not confirm unambiguously the theory Afshordi, about what black holes are the source of dark energy. But to explain this would require a truly new idea. “In all we produced simulations I never heard of such an echo. If we manage to fix its presence, it will be very interesting. Then, we will need to see what could cause such a phenomenon,” says Birnholtz.
In the case that the statistical significance of the signal Afshordi increase, he has research plans. He wants to improve his model, mergers of black holes and to conduct numerical simulations to support the analytical calculations, how to look like the echo. The next step will be to attempt to better understand the underlying theory of time and space, which could give rise to such behaviour on the horizon of black holes. Also cosmologists would like a lot more carefully to understand this new explanation of dark energy.
Afshordi understands how far-fetched, so to change the General relativity. But his revolution is the goal: “I want to encourage people to think openly and not to ignore ideas just because they don’t fit with their preconceived beliefs.” Perhaps such views will soon be ignored, considering how LIGUO opens the creation of the Universe in a never before seen scale.