The revolution in Russia in October 1917 (100 years ago) under the leadership of Lenin laid the Foundation of the world’s first in the history socialist state. This state originated in the confrontation of “life and death” the most different social strata and groups, and brought the whole social revolution. The destruction of the shackles of slavery and bondage, in which dwelt the women, it was one of the greatest accomplishments of this social revolution. The October revolution quickly ended the ecclesiastical norms of marriage in Russia, which for centuries was the Foundation of the despotism of the husband in the family and legalized his unlimited power over his wife and children.
The modern world consists not only of those wars in which people die on earth, in water and air, not only from those conflicts that make unsafe the life of people. A good half of humanity involved in such wars, where there is no fighting as such. The oppression and violence experienced by modern women in different parts of the planet, simply defy description.
But in the socialist societies of the twentieth century, first formed in the Soviet Union and socialist China, women can get rid of spiritual and physical oppression. They were subjected to him by the state, a Patriarchal society, Patriarchal arranged by family, religion, and it endowed to them by the power of men. And it was a huge blow to centuries existed within human societies inequality.
Soviet Union (USSR)
The October revolution of 1917 in Russia led by Lenin won, with the result that for the first time in history, it was created a socialist state. Although this state was created in the struggle for their existence, together with it there was tremendous social transformation. And one of the greatest accomplishments of this social revolution was the destruction of the shackles of slavery and bondage, in which dwelt the women. The October revolution decisively ended the ecclesiastical norms of marriage in Russia, which for centuries was the basis of despotism in the family of her husband and has validated his unlimited power over his wife and children. The divorce procedure was simplified. Was introduced the principle of equal pay for work. Was organized to provide free services to midwifery and birthing. In the press and in schools began animatedly to discuss issues related to the role of men and women in society and the problems of marriage and family. In literature there are also science fiction, which became the embodiment of new social relations.
The Soviet Union became the first state to legalize abortion. At the same time, in Europe, and especially in America, are still used by thousands of legal and religious restrictions related to abortion. And in a socialist state all that became the norm almost one hundred years ago. At the same time in most European countries women had no right to vote and participate in elections. In America those women who fought for suffrage were subjected to harassment and repression. The Soviet state became the first when he was declared free of the relations of the sexes (meaning the first years of Soviet power — approx. TRANS.), all peoples and Nations of the socialist state got equality in all respects. At the same time in the same years in the United States an ordinary marriage between a “colored” man and a white woman faced criminal prosecution.
In the middle and second half of the 20-ies of XX century in the Central Asian States that were part of the Soviet Union, began a mass struggle against the Patriarchal traditions that were also part of Islamic law related to Sharia. Women in these parts of the country have been forced to reckon with the fact that all marriages are defined in advance, and they were given married in return paid her family the mahr (or dowry — approx. TRANS.). The socialist government encouraged and supported those men and women who were involved in the struggle for literacy and education. But in some areas the organizers of this struggle was attacked by conservative forces acting in the name of Islam. In 1927, the women’s organizations in these countries, which have acquired sufficient force, initiated a broad campaign for the removal of hijab. Hijab was declared nothing but a tool of oppression against women, the method of Patriarchal control over them, as well as element hiding and distorting human identity and the female form.
For women in China, the weakening of the shackles of slavery and their liberation started many years before the victory of the socialist revolution in this country in 1949. It went throughout the long “liberation struggle of the Chinese people”, which began in 1928 under the leadership of the Communist party of China.
One of the major goals of the Chinese revolution was the liquidation of the Patriarchal order. The Communist party of China, led by Mao Zedong since the first years of the revolutionary struggle spoke to this problem, both in theory and in practice. She raised women to fight so that they freed themselves from the “four powers”: power mode, power of faith, the power of fathers and the power of family. The liberation of women without the constant and determined struggle against the omnipotence of religion and religious morals was impossible, because Confucian doctrine gave these “four forces” the nature of legitimate power or “given over” and call them pillars of society. The Chinese Communist party led the fight against religion as an important pillar of the domination in society of the exploiting classes and the power of the state. It played a particularly important role in the 1930-ies in the liberation of the Chinese villages and women living there, and also contributed to the growth of the revolutionary movement as a whole. The struggle for women’s liberation would not be effective without a struggle against religion, Patriarchy and the Patriarchal structure of the family. Mao Zedong from the very beginning of the revolutionary struggle and the socialist revolution, the Chinese consistently emphasized that one should not indulge in backward mentality of the masses. On the contrary, the liberation of the masses needs to be striking to this mentality, as is entirely customary, and therefore reactionary. This case was by no means soft and delicate. Those peasants, which the legalization of divorce or the redistribution of land equally considered as a struggle with religion, contrary to their class interests opposed the Communist party, and even themselves took part in the physical destruction of many Communist propagandists. However, the party did not retreat before the reactionary manifestations among the masses, acting primarily in the name of themselves as oppressed.
During the so-called “agrarian revolution”, which was part of the revolutionary program, the land was redistributed among poor and landless peasants, and equally between men and women. Revolutionary power in all the major provinces have introduced a new marriage law, which became known as the “law on divorce”. Because on the basis of this law, rural women who previously have been forced to marry or who had to do it purely for economic reasons with the subsequent release to full dependence on the husband, could get the land, and divorce. In 1943, Mao Zedong, speaking to the National Congress of Soviets declared that the new order of marriage is “one of the greatest achievements in the history of mankind.” He also stressed that a free and equal marriage will be guaranteed only when a man and a woman can have political and economic freedom.
In 1950, i.e. some time after the victory of the revolution and the formation of authorities of the people’s Republic of China, at the same time taking two of the law. The first was the agrarian reform law, the second marriage law. In fact, these two laws have already acted within the same “liberation struggle of the Chinese people” in the liberated areas of the country, where already was established the power of the people’s councils. But after the complete victory and the proclamation of the socialist state, they took a national character.
In these two socialist States, women were not considered merely an “object” of sexual attraction from men, or “machine” for the production of offspring. Over them hung no idea about the girl’s “modesty” and “honour”, not lay in wait for them and ambush in the porn industry. They were considered in the full sense of the word people, the opportunities and strength which were equivalent to those of men, in any sphere of activity. Now one of these two socialist States no longer exist. Cannot be considered socialist and the second. They were both destroyed by powerful forces to raise the head of the bourgeoisie within the country and from the outside is suppressed by the power of global capital. However, during their short existence he showed to all mankind that oppression and exploitation are also not the natural order of things forever — they, too, can and should be destroyed.
Compare the existence of women in the socialist States with the situation in our society (in this case it is about the Iran — approx. TRANS.) and the modern world. The Islamic Republic of Iran 38 years ago, celebrated the birth of a genuine attack on their rights and freedoms, and during this period by military forces imposing the wearing of the hijab and, like a noose, strangling their medieval Sharia law. No woman on the streets of big cities of Iran and other Muslim countries are not protected from sexual harassment and that such suffering and violation of Islamic norms of marriage is punishable by death. In most of these countries do not have the right to abortion: it provides for severe punishment. But in the United States according to statistics every 15 seconds a woman is battered. Approximately one out of four female students of the College for training or suffering from rape, or from sexual harassment. But “pornography” is worldwide one of the most profitable and profitable kinds of business.
And when we compare today with the “socialist past”, we understand that it is “past” was actually the future that we today can only dream of. But the struggle for that brighter future brings to our life meaning and inspiration.