After the accepted version was that trump was born, like Athena from the head of Putin-Zeus, or, like Aphrodite, from the foam of the false news began to forget his true identity and his real context. Moreover, the latest interpretation of events changes the understanding of what has already happened, though the past is, as the law should not be retroactive.
Trump unusual for America, but move it to Europe, and it will look one of the representatives of a long line of the new right. In the last 15 and especially 10 years, when trump was not in the project, we have seen in Europe, the success of political forces that earlier in the second half of the XX century would be considered extreme, marginal, and their predecessors really clung around the edges, hiding in the far corners of the political space. The main motive for their success is the same as trump, the return of better times, the restoration of local identity, which is undermined by the dissolution of national political, cultural and economic sovereignty in the global. Took too much to return.
In the Northern, Western and Eastern Europe this is the new right. In the southern, Mediterranean Europe, the new left, the Greek SYRIZA, the Spanish Podemos, Portugal competing left and another left. Apparently, new times inherited from old Europe the political isotherm, which coincides with the climate: in times of crisis in the North of Europe start to climb the right-wing, nationalist forces in the South — left, internationalist. Perhaps this is due to the fact that the South has retained the self-awareness of the countries of departure, and the North is associating itself with countries of arrival and donors.
From the small and funny
Why the victory of the former outcasts one after the other went right now? This is partly a reaction to the economic crisis of 2008: prior to that, promised that in the new global times, the economy will only grow, and she suddenly fell, and her faith no more. The fall coincided with the opening of the labour market in Western European countries, for immigrants from Eastern Europe, the new member countries of the EU. In recent years, Western Europeans have found that Polish or Hungarian workers do not just come to them to work, but I use the same as they, rights, content with smaller salaries. The “Arab spring” added to them Africans and inhabitants of the depths of Asia, who joined with the Africans in the competition for race to capture remaining European places, some went because the war and the revolution, others just behind them.
And if you retreat several steps back, this time Europe — with some provisions for big changes delay — adapted by the end of the cold war. The political forces that would be considered during the cold war self-defeating for the West, were perceived by the voter in a more relaxed way: there is not one opponent who will take advantage of the destruction of the existing political systems. One of the reasons why Russia is trying to return to the role of a new common enemy, an attempt to repair the psychological mechanisms that kept West of the voter from the liberties and whims in the second half of the twentieth century, but ceased to hold in the beginning of this.
Since the beginning of the two thousandth, we are witnessing a continuous series of victories of the new right in the Netherlands, Denmark, Flanders, Sweden, Norway and Finland, in Eastern Europe, followed by the already better known — because of the size of countries — their progress in the UK, France and the United States. In all these countries the new right went roughly the same way: first, when the universal surprise and indignation conquered the municipalities, then fell to the Parliament, then became the third and even second groups and, finally, the participants, and in some places the foundations of the ruling coalitions. True Finns give a perfect figure for the corresponding growth curve of popularity. In the 1999 elections they had 1%; in 2003 to 1.6% in 2007 and 4.1% in 2011 to 19.1%; in 2015 to 17.6%. In the last election they went to the government, their head By Soini — Minister of foreign Affairs. About the same way the Sweden Democrats — from 1.4% in 2000 to 13% in 2014: 47 of deputies, the second largest faction in the Riksdag.
The first winner here, probably, was the founder of one of Europe’s first new right-wing parties, the Dutchman PIM Fortuyn, who was killed during the election campaign the radical environmentalist, but for the fact that Pym is attacked during the campaign for the weaker members of society — Muslim migrants. It was the first political murder in the Netherlands since the seventeenth century, the party of Fortuyn posthumously scored 17% and entered the government; in 2004 the same as we do, the competition, the Dutch chose Fortuyn “in the name of the Netherlands”.
The response to the first successes of the new right was similar to what is happening now in the United States: the surprise and panic of the traditional parties, journalists and intellectuals — “the Nazis are coming”. Newspapers of Sweden have declared a collective boycott of the Swedish Democrats: not published their ads and not covered. In 2006, two of the three largest Newspapers, the ban was abolished, but the tabloid Expressen adheres to it still.
Initially, the new right tried to circumvent when creating coalitions, building the most intricate lace to the configuration of the traditional parties, but they were fragile. The Norwegian progress Party in the 2005 election was the second, but remained in the opposition (“you can’t collaborate with the Nazis”).
Then they were included in the parliamentary majority without portfolios. There is such a format of cooperation: in exchange for votes faction in Parliament to include in its programme a part of other people’s requirements and give some minor posts, like Deputy heads of parliamentary committees. In this way the ruling coalition from 2001 to 2009 was part of the Danish people’s party.
Arranged after the Breivik attacks, many believed that the Norwegian far-right will lose the sympathy of voters. But the first attacks after the 2013 elections, the progress Party became the third and entered the government: the leader received a second place in the elections, the conservative Erna Solberg went into an Alliance with the third placed Party of progress and bypassed first place winner of the labour party. Since then, at the head of two Norwegian blond beast, blonde: Erna Solberg, Prime Minister, and SIV Jensen, the right-wing Minister of Finance. The new right-wing owned and specialized in migration issues, the Ministry of justice, and five Ministerial posts. To operate it has now become possible.
New their own and others
New right differs from the old lot. For example, they have, as a rule, no old intra-European hostility. The French nationalists do not say that the Germans are bad; German — what’s wrong with the British; for the British, the Spaniards are not our enemies. On the contrary, by awakening nationalist feelings, they praised long-time neighbors in old Europe, because they have a common enemy: the rootless migrants and the bureaucracy in Brussels.
They do not favor even his commissioners, people from their own countries. Poland accuses Donald Tusk, the first pole at the head of the European Council, in anti-Polish activities. However, the Eastern European right wing, although separated from the Western like-minded anti-immigrant and antirussische resentment still lingered in the past. They look more like old, classic right the fact that I do not regret and neighbors: Slovaks and Romanians — Hungarians, poles, Germans and Lithuanians, and so on.
From the new right there is no anti-Semitism, the old right, even after the war, he was. Jean-Marie Le Pen has suffered them in traditional, hereditary form; marine Le pen has expelled his father out of the party for anti-Semitic statements. It is really not absolutely an ally of Israel (the greatness of France requires a special relationship with the Arabs), but other new right see it as a positive example for the treatment of other cultures, in particular Arabs and Muslims on their territory and their positive discrimination to the detriment of others’, and spit that write in the Newspapers. The Sweden Democrats started out as the classic white Suprematists, with a torchlight procession, Vikings posters, “Viking rock” as party music and former Nazis in the manual. But every cent received by get rid of the most shameful traits. Now they are one of the most Pro-Israel parties in Europe and argued against recognizing a Palestinian state, the social democratic government of Sweden in 2014.
Program manual Assembly
The main feature of the new right — the mosaic programmes, the rejection of slender traditional right-wing ideology of the second half of the twentieth century. The old one program can restore next and it following. If an elderly conservative gentleman said, “And,” you sure know what will be the “B” and “C”; if you shout “Thunder of victory sound”, know beforehand who is having fun.
The old right, anyway, post-war, nationalistic elements were associated with conservative social and liberal market. Shrines of private property, his business, family, religion, and national pride was a mandatory part of any demonstrations. A program in which less government, taxes and social burden on the owner, the traditional values of a classic family, school, culture and the Church, focus on US foreign policy and cautious (hostile) attitude towards the Soviet Union (Russia) were standard right-wing offer. It was a party of bourgeois and self-employed working class. The combination of socialism, of revolutionary methods and of the nationalism of the first half of the twentieth century after the Second world war it was considered too dangerous.
Now all these elements and, most importantly, the relationship between them reviewed. New far-right are for women’s emancipation, modern art, for LGBT rights, for socialism: it is possible, if socialism is not for everyone, but for their own. The head of the French and Norwegian right-wing women; the founder of one of the first in Europe new right-wing party PIM Fortuyn — nationalist, openly gay, practicing Catholic who took a Deputy for the party of Dutch citizen of African descent. Fighter against green taxes on the economy and the right to conduct business related to the killing of cute animals: want to keep the fur farm or the factory — please, for he and economic liberalism.
The new right are characterised by high flexibility in the design of the proposal. They can change a points program on their the complete opposite. The Fortuyn was killed by a radical animal rights activist, and his political heir, Geert Wilders himself an environmentalist. The ban of Islamic and kosher slaughterhouses: the animals are suffering from a knife, only electricity.
Agenda and ideological sets of the new right is much more varied, arbitrary and less predictable. Knowing one point, probably impossible to name another. Any item traditional, conservative nationalism can be withdrawn, cranky and even replaced by its opposite.
From the point of view of classical doctrines of the party programme of the European new right full of surprises as the campaign of Donald trump. Dutch freedom Party Wilders to toughen the punishment for violence against Jews and LGBT people, to remove coffeeshops a kilometer from schools, but for the repeal of the ban on Smoking in bars, for the protection of animals and to build more nuclear power plants, coal plants, and not to depend on oil imports, to return to the Guilder, to close Muslim schools, to impose a tax on the hijab, to declare the nationality of the perpetrators, to support the Boers in South Africa, to stay in NATO, but to clean out the Turkey. Against the rights of foreign national and religious minorities, but sexual rights, including marriage, women’s rights, including abortion, and all forms of modern culture. Domestic gay dearer and closer to us in large numbers carriers of traditional values. Modern art is beautiful, because it distinguishes us from the Muslim East, where there is no such.
The Norwegian progress Party was created as a libertarian — against the struggle with the searing effects of the oil CZK and the welfare state. But as beneficiaries of prosperity quickly turned visitors, to points about tax cuts, privatization of industries, increased competition has added a requirement to restrict migration.
True Finns is a great example of combining socialism in the economy and the traditional right-wing values in society. “Finns” to raise pensions and scholarships, in favor of a progressive tax scale with a large step in the growth of income, increased capital tax, restore taxes on luxury and wealth, public investment in industry and infrastructure, subsidization of our agricultural regions (save the Finnish peasant from the competition). Left economic program they combine conservative social values, isolationism, nationalism and protectionism in international relations, where it is proposed to be against the EU, NATO and globalization. Schools need to inculcate healthy national pride and promote classical family. But to abolish compulsory Swedish (Finland’s second language), to make room for English, German, French and Russian in the Eastern part of the country. The program turns out like this: his socialism, the rest of the law.
Neighboring Swedish Democrats gained popularity in the intersection of two ideas: supporting the elderly and combating immigration. Socialism, practical communism for the elderly and no spending on young outsiders. A compelling combination for aging countries.
The program of the new right may include skepticism about a United Europe and the USA and positive for Russia and Putin, and may not include. The Swedish Democrats quarreled among themselves on the Ukrainian question. Older adhere to the classical right-wing views about the dangers of Russia, the younger ones showed more understanding for Putin’s actions in Ukraine.
Wilders and the allies organized the referendum on the Ukrainian question, and the citizens supported them, not because I particularly do not like Ukraine and Russia love her anymore, but because Russia is not in Europe, not pressing, not insisting on its European perspectives. He also founded a website where Dutch people can complain about the behaviour of Eastern Europeans, or if a Romanian or a pole robbed them work.
The new rules seem to be allies of Russia simply because without strict dogma and slender ideology it is easier to accept someone else’s political independence, because in their case we are not talking about the spread the only true and interpreted uniformly belief systems on the globe. Their international position is more defensive than offensive: it is necessary to protect the country, Europe, West from strangers and let strangers do what they want, if it does not threaten us.
New right less scrupulous in matters of international reputation. They were denounced traditional politicians, journalists, intellectuals, reputed fascists and populists, therefore less heed to what they say and write about others, whether it’s Putin, Assad or the same trump.
The new right use the old language. The dictatorship of political correctness they consider the wall that the intelligentsia and the left is artificially erected around the migrants to get their voices, and the local to deny the right to criticize them for this deal. This does not always mean that the new right — principled racists, sexist and homophobic, alien to any conception of tolerance. And here they manage to reconcile the fact that their predecessors seemed incompatible.
Xenophobia for the sake of tolerance
Thanks to the flexibility and the mosaic of programs new right — easy partners and allies in the parliamentary majority. Among other things, for this they began to appreciate and to invite in a coalition: they can be blocked with conservatives and liberals and the old right and left.
The only item on the agenda of the new right, which they are not willing to exchange or remove, is the struggle of migrants, especially from Muslim countries. For 14 years before Putin came up with trump, Fortuyn proposed to close the borders of Holland, and better all over Europe to Muslim migrants. Why? Because, as he insisted, these people do not want to integrate. Do not want to integrate they for the reason that the Islamic world is now more conscious of the bearer of traditional values than the most conservative Europeans.
In terms of mass arrival of greater than themselves, traditionalists have of the European right was a nasty choice: be similar to them in ideology and differ only in appearance, for a dubious formula of “a mosque is bad, Church is good; they have a lot of children is bad, we good”, that is, to preserve the classic racial and ethnic nationalism. Or, conversely, to start from their tradition and to build a kind of option value of nationalism. The new right trying to follow the second path, because this way they manage to combine their program with what for many years has taught the postwar generation of Europeans — with the rejection of Nazism and xenophobia.
During a televised debate with a Muslim cleric Fortuyn was teasing him about his unconventional personal life, and when he broke down and said some nasty things, turned and said to the camera: he’s the Trojan horse of xenophobia that is disguised by the slogans of multiculturalism.
The new right paradoxically combine xenophobia and tolerance. Rather, their program can be described as “xenophobia in the name of tolerance.” The logic here is. Europe, the West is the territory of individual freedom, so all this freedom claims contrary to the East, this may all be part of the European and, more broadly, Western cultural nationalism. The new right-wing argument goes something like this: we are better because we are free and tolerant, and do not want strangers, because they’re xenophobes, and here we have to defend ourselves. In the course are examples of actions and preaching of immigrants against the host of the West, which are many, although they are simple and less sophisticated supporters and then go into the classic rut of racial and national superiority. Ordinary members of the new right regularly caught in racist, sexist and homophobic words and actions.
Trump in its own juice
But trump is famous for exactly this: it is not a classic Republican, the Republican party in mind one thing and his tongue another; those slim number from Saturday to Thursday, he every day a Friday. If we look at the program trump — she is not growing out from where the traditional Republican conservatism. In the election campaign trump very little of the Bible, Church, God, family values, the containment of Russia and intervention of the state in the economy. It is time the government even as it intervenes to impose taxes on those who are transferring the production to China or Mexico, and Chinese goods duties, Russia can agree, but with the Islamists — it is impossible.
His appointment of people from the opposite — including his own — views confuse the most astute interpreters of the future. Donald trump, like all other European parties of the new right, is distinguished by increased flexibility and lack of picture of the world where one routinely the other.
He is also willing to negotiate and make exchanges on various issues, to move to the right or to the left to write or rewrite the items program, except perhaps one, as his associates in Europe — anti-immigrant.
Among those edinomyshlennikov and predecessors, besides those already mentioned, you can add your educational success of Flemish nationalists in Belgium; Norbert Hofer from the Austrian freedom Party, who almost became President; East European leaders, who can now be proud before trump guessed a global trend — were the ones weathervanes that caused the wind; marine Le Pen with a classic mosaic program of the new right, going to fight for the French presidency, and, of course, the collective party brekzita the same faith in England.
A quick ascent of the new right took place in the old democracies with long-standing liberal traditions — where Russia does not possess the authority and influence because it seems barbaric backward country for representatives of all political forces. Exactly like in America where anyone, including surrounded by trump, does not come to mind to see in Russia the sample. This is the true context of the arrival of trump to power. And he is the real context of future French and German elections, on the inside, not on top of which there is Russia. She, being of an Eastern European country, just realized, with the local features, the right turn just before the US and large Western European countries, but later or together with the countries of Northern Europe.