In a new report from the Donbass in the framework of the joint project of “Spectrum” and the portal Delfi “Fragments” our special correspondent Mikhail Skorik tells about how hard it is on the territory of the unrecognized DNR and LNR paramilitary especially in time to solve various social issues of everyday life.
This is the third material from the Donbas Mikhail Skorik. In the previous two, our correspondent was told, the road is life in the East of Ukraine and there it is possible to earn — this material was called “What in the Donbas. The accounts that pay residents of the DNI and LNR”, and also described the unique economic structure of the unrecognized territories in the material entitled, “How things are done. What are the Economics and Finance of the DNI and the LC.”
In this report you will read how lucky pensioners of Donbass, and how unlucky veterans of the militia, biography Zakharchenko became part of the school program and who now formed the new elite.
On television in Donetsk shows only Russian channels and propaganda TV channels DNI that go on the equipment and the studios, taken from the former city private and public channels. Same situation with the radio stations. All pre-war local Newspapers, except for the Russian “daughters” are closed. Through the government and allowed the public organization funded 16 regional Newspapers and a dozen new “regional”. On the campaign the money do not regret, it total, comes from everywhere.
The Internet works everywhere, even in places where fighting is not mobile. But providers under pain of severe punishment ordered to block a list of “subversive Ukrainian sites,” and this order carefully executed. “Ukraine” you can see only football matches of FC Shakhtar, which the local cable network are selectively allowed according to special channels. The information field is absolutely monolithic in local Newspapers exclusively optimistic headlines about victories on the fields, factories and fronts.
You have to understand that Donetsk is almost gone managers — public cooperation with the new authorities did not go none of the existing members of the Supreme Council, only one member of the regional Council, left the city an elected mayor. But still almost full States social services — pension Fund, services for work with children. So when almost a year after the capture of the city, the new government in April 2015 we decided to pay pensions, special organizational problems have arisen. Old Ukrainian pension is simply counted at a reduced rate of 1 to 2 (then the real was 3 to 1, now somewhere 2.2 rubles per 1 hryvnia (0,04 EUR)) and began to pay in rubles. Did the same thing with the pensions, disability pensions, benefits for mothers and other social benefits.
The most massive pension in the NPT, until recently, accounted for 2,490 rubles (40 EUR) — ex-1 240 thousand hryvnia, and the minimum — 2 thousand rubles (32 EUR). In August 2016 Alexander Zakharchenko announced the upcoming first ever DND the rise of pensions by 10%. But realized this plan was not destined shortly in Donetsk announced the hacking of the database of Ukrainian hackers, resulting in the payment of the pension was generally suspended and resumed only in October 2016 and without the promised allowances.
Digits of the payment of pensions and number of pensioners — one of the few open data in the LC and the DNI. So, according to the official report of the Pension Fund of the DPR in August 2016 paid 2.9 billion rubles 675 thousand pensioners. Pension Fund LC reports on payments 474 thousand pensioners. Total 1.15 million people!
It is impossible to determine how these numbers are real. As we said, according to the United Nations in the republics inhabited by 2.7 million people. Statistical office of the DNI and LC respectively give figures 2.3 and 1.5 million people, which is much higher than the UN estimates. The numbers of agencies of the unrecognized republics is approximately 75% of the prewar population of these places. But what the numbers don’t look clear bias demographic indicators of older people there.
It’s harder for them to leave and they, paradoxically, often the happiest residents of the breakaway republics. Until recently, the majority of pensioners, together with “Russian” received their Ukrainian pensions. According to the Ukrainian Ministry of social policy, in the Donetsk region pensions received 550 thousand pensioners-immigrants. The Ukrainian government announced at the time, that can not fulfill its obligations in the occupied territories. But anyone who goes on the Ukrainian territory of the pension is calculated. People began to flock to Ukraine and were registered as displaced persons and lived in their homes in Lugansk, Donetsk and Gorlovka. Pensions received on the card.
In addition, in the largest cities of the DNI Rinat Akhmetov’s charity Foundation in the autumn of of 2014 mass grocery provides humanitarian assistance. Now it is get all the people over 60 years of age, all mothers and all children up to 6 years. From August 2015, the monthly issued 500,000 food rations for 13 kg weight. About the same time on the work of the Fund is prohibited to mention in all media of the DNI. The authorities could not block such a channel delivery products to people, but decided that the political influence of the Ukrainian oligarch in the case of elections need to be minimized.
Censorship here is not hiding, the Ministry of information DND is one of the most noticeable. And in LC it was closed in July 2016 after the scandal with the publication of the curator of the Ministry. According to a published scan of the official letter was alhazov Dmitry Mikhailovich — Deputy Minister of Telecom and mass communications of the Russian Federation.
The average pensioner in the DNI receives products from Akhmetov and two pensions in rubles and hryvnia against the background of sharp impoverishment and mass unemployment. To the elderly, as in the 90s, again reached out grandchildren and children.
From the beginning of 2016 Ukraine has begun to fight the “pension tourism”. SBU has compiled a list of people in the electronic database of intersections of the line of posts EN masse and hundreds of thousands of people stopped paying. Verification of IDPs is to this day, but the most hated official in the country — Minister of social policy of Ukraine Pavlo Rozenko reported in early June that was then discontinued payment of pensions 450 thousands of displaced people, but after inspections on June 2, payment of 90 thousand pensions had been restored. In 2015, according to Rozenko, Ukraine has paid immigrants 30 billion hryvnias of pension payments (1.05 billion EUR).
Interestingly, in the breakaway republics there is no Law “About militia” and therefore is not as such the status of war veterans and invalids of the war fought against Ukraine. Disabled people with no arms or legs get minimum pension as the “domestic injury”, the families of the victims — the standard retirement “survivor benefits”.
Medical care in the republics stressed free. In the sense of trying to get money “on medicines” in the case of treatment of patients in the MGB brutally suppressed. Local hospitals operate in the frontline of hospitals, getting supplies from Russia. But experts do not suffice. Particularly affected by the departure of qualified doctors regional clinic of Children’s regional clinical hospital and the Regional Central clinical hospital. Less affected by the regional hospital named after Kalinin.
In the end, high-tech care is not enough. For example, in the Donbass before the war there were four cardiac surgery, who could do surgery for aorto-coronary bypass surgery. Now, branches in Luhansk and one in Donetsk closed. Only works branch of OKB imeni Kalinina. Works quite well — a specialized cardiosurgical aid in the Donbass can only be obtained there. But, say, a kidney transplant surgery in Donetsk no longer do. And many do not do.
Split In Two Universities. Universities went on Ukrainian territory, leaving the buildings, equipment and teachers and students. Universities in the DNI work and issue beautiful certificates with a double-headed eagle. They can be hung on the wall or to present to employers within LDNR. Outside the problem is solved several academic institutions. Contracts with Russian universities, and graduates from Donetsk and Luhansk can go and try to confirm his diploma in Russia finally received the diploma of the University of Rostov or Yeisk.
High school graduates are going to enter Russian universities have in the last year, the same opportunities in Ukraine.
School all since the beginning of academic year 2015 translated into Russian textbooks, standards and curriculum. Library withdrawn books on the history and geography of Ukraine. Drastically reduced the teaching of the Ukrainian language, the Russian increased and introduced special civics lessons in all classes where children learn the biography of Alexander Zakharchenko and the words of the hymn of the Republic, set to music of national anthem of Russia.
The occupancy classes in the center of Donetsk at the level of 30-40% of the pre-war, most affluent and mobile people have always lived closer to the center. In a prosperous (in the sense neobstrelyannye) the outskirts of the classes in 23 people are considered normal, there was almost no reduction in the number of classes. The Ministry of education the DNR adopted the standard in 26 people in the class.
Russian humanitarian food assistance is not distributed EN masse to the population, and is very separate categories of citizens. But due to this assistance provides free meals in schools, hospitals and kindergartens. Until November 2016 humanitarian “Russian” the package could get people, receive less than 2 thousands 33 EUR) per person in the family. Now packages did not promise every two months to help financially is to give food 1 thousand 500 rubles (a little more than 21 euros).
One of the “working” ministries — the Ministry of justice. The famous “cellars” in 2014 had every self-respecting battalion or armed group. Then organized the office, but there were no ships. The famous firing order of strelkov was a harsh reality. The Ministers of the DNI could get into the jail one word of the leader. Extrajudicial landing “on pervobytnye” became a reality. The usual term in jail was 30 days.
For execution in the DNR adopted the criminal code of the Ukrainian SSR from 1961. The Soviet code is pretty tough and gives unlimited possibilities to the Prosecutor’s office. In Donetsk like to remind that the Soviet Union was the death penalty, but officially it has not yet been used even once. Although the first sentence to “death” already — sentenced to death by the Cossacks raped and killed civilians on the front line.
The first criminal courts earned March 17, 2015 and did not made of sentences — no one knew what to do with them then. Now operate the registry offices, notaries and one hundred and fifty judges. 1 Jan 2015 the self-proclaimed Republic has been disabled by Ukraine from all electronic registers. On the spot could not even register the death and led a special publication of the dead hand. Now, the assurances of the Minister of justice DND Elena Radomsky, notaries and state authorities of Russia and “friendly States” in the face of South Ossetia and Abkhazia to accept certificates of death, marriage and three dozen documents from the territories of the republics. Recently Russia has announced that it will recognize the LDNR issued official documents, but she did not go to nobody, not even Belarus.
Began issuing its passports, which you can now get to Russia and you can move inside for two years, a whole generation of 16-year-old without documents, adults warring that can’t go on Ukrainian territory and to paste the photo to achieve 25 or 45 years, people with burnt during attacks documents. Passports issued since February and got them a little more than three tens of thousands of people. The forms are there, but not enough special printers to make information in the documents.
Russia has for some time been taking them informally even in the migration services, so willing to book was more. With the passport and the DNI, you can even go on holiday “abroad” — in Abkhazia. You can enroll in a Russian UNIVERSITY, buy plane tickets or train Rostov-na-Donu. The citizenship of the system in the e-ticket shows as “Ukraine”.
In the Republic you can still get a driver’s license, license plates for DNR vehicles to register the car. All car dealerships were looted in the early summer months of 2014 and new not opened, but it is possible to drive the car from Russia, where they are seriously cheaper, than in Ukraine. This vehicle can be registered in the unrecognized Republic, get the number and go only there and in Russia. True tax recently reached out to motorists, and the fee the DNR will have to pay, though not as much as Ukrainian.
“You know, the kind of happiness that Russia is big, said one honoured in the Republic. Now going to study it. To obtain a visa for Ukrainian passport and get a new one chances are no more. And a ban on freedom of movement for me the most painful”. This man is relatively wealthy and managed to travel all of Europe before the war, and travel even at the time of her departure from Rostov-on-don, but have expired visas in the Ukrainian passport and ended with a trip outside the “Russian world”.
Those who were not in the lists of the SBU and can leave on the territory of Ukraine enjoy the benefits of “not Russia” — for example flying through Ukraine is forbidden until recently in Russia cheap Egypt and Turkey. Travel agencies work — although paying customers not so much.
Elites are now generated on the other of the new prosecutors, military commanders, currency dealers, owners, Assembly areas, scrap metal and various retailers. Becoming more and more Russians who are willing to buy apartments. Donetsk took the 2012 championship in football, he was successful, rich and still very beautiful and comfortable city, which destroyed the airport, not working train station and there is destruction on the outskirts, but there are five theatres and a Philharmonic hall, which is undergoing a surge of attendance.
War attracts people to the theaters, especially because tickets are cheap. There are even social performances are announced in advance of the submission during the week, on which one can take the ticket and tell the cashier your area. After the performance is formed by several free bus routes to the suburbs. Performances at 17: 00, people have to get home before curfew. Tickets from 40 to 80 rubles (0,70-1,30 EUR).
People living in Donetsk and Luhansk, trying not to think about the future. According to the poll of “think tanks Donbass” held in early June 2016, only 1% of people have some idea about the future, 18% call themselves citizens of the DNI. Approximately the same percentages of support for the NPT — 15-17% — give surveys of the Association of entrepreneurs of Donbas, published “Newspaper.Ru”.
In the territories of the DNI and LC elections, but they allowed only two public organizations — “Donetsk Republic” Alexander Zakharchenko and “Free Donbass” Pavel Gubarev. At the beginning of the “Russian spring” protest relied on the tacit support of local elites, but organizationally it was supported only by local Communists, a small group of Alexander Purgina and the MMM network created by the current speaker of the Parliament DND Denis Pushilin. Without disciplined members of the commissions from the Communists, no even the appearance of a referendum from may 11 2014 to create was impossible. First the DPR people’s Council made up “heroes”, which first burst on April 6 in the session hall of the Donetsk regional Council and handed over their passport information to the organizer.
The word “heroes” irony is dead, then the separatists still actively planted, the attackers were hiding their faces and names, and those who handed over the passports, it was not so much. The head of the Council became the local leader of the Communists Boris Litvinov.
In the DPR people’s Council of 100 deputies, they are freely rotated by the decision of its public organizations. On a separate election was announced by the Head of the DND Alexander Zakharchenko. He also appoints all administrators of cities and districts. Local elections in the DNI and LC was not, although they were to be held within the framework of the Minsk agreements.
In this case, on Donbass there is a pretty heavy legislative work. For example, on 24 June discussed the law on religious organizations. Reported by a lawyer, the Deputy speaker of the National Council Olga Makeeva. She reported that conducted a complex study that determined that the title of the article of the law “On freedom of conscience” is not applicable in the people’s Republic, because this formulation can be interpreted as the law “on freedom of conscience”. In the end, adopted the law with a complex and long name authorizing the work in the breakaway republics only “traditional religions” Orthodox Church, Muslim, Jewish and Greek Catholic. The Protestant community has traditionally persecuted.
Immediately after the “Russian spring” due to threats of Donetsk left-minded Pro-Ukrainian Donetsk region, mufti said Ismailov and Rabbi of Donetsk Pinchas Vyshetsky. The exiled leaders of the Protestant communities of the type of pastor Sergey Kosyak, who organized the 2014 interfaith prayer marathon for peace in Ukraine on the Kalmius embankment in the area of the square of the Constitution. Then he was taken and beaten by the NKVD (it was an organization on the 6th floor of the House of government DND).
In July 2016 Sergei Kosyak was drafted into the Ukrainian army and served as a military chaplain and all this time helping people in the frontline of Marinka. In December 2016 the service finished and wrote all that he has left the anti-terrorist operation zone and went to his wife and children. The pastor closed the war, and his family was granted asylum in Germany in 2014.
Donetsk is not yet frozen place, closed his story. War changes from week to week, but more slowly.
“You know, it’s great that journalists became less — told me one of the local entrepreneurs — You less so we have more and war less. You see, somehow it will come to anything permanent”.