You know Ursula müller? Probably not. While it is politically more influential politician than most of them in Germany. Mueller — German Executive Director world Bank. She previously held the same position at the Ministry of foreign Affairs, the Ministry for economic cooperation and development — a real “flyer”, only integrity has become the object of media attention.
The problem with Ms. Muller definitely is not her personal integrity. The problem is that it is not a coincidence, that she did not know. In the end, she never had to fight for the trust of the people. It never elected by the people. And now it operates free from democratic control.
Unfortunately, this is not the exception but the rule. Be it the world Bank, IMF or WTO — global policy relies on future generations. But she is aloof from the public and solely by the Executive. The separation of powers, transparency, participation of citizens — all this is not in the so-called global governance. A glaring democratic deficit.
To defend national sovereignty from international elites — with this slogan were such populists as trump, Le Pen, Orban, “Alternative for Germany” and supporters of Breccia. They brand elitist “globalism” and put forward the most wild conspiracy theories. However, this should not hide the fact that they used in their end, the problem really exists. But is there a political solution to the global democratic deficit, which is beyond the scope neinnovatsionnoy the extension of nationalism?
International cooperation blurs the separation of powers
First, you need to expand the diagnosis of democracy deficit in all institutions of global government and decisions of the world Bank and IMF and WTO are not accepted at public talks. In them take part not only directly elected national leaders, along with his staff is also not elected leading officials from the National Bank, the European Commission, ministries of Finance and economy. In practice, a great influence and economic lobbies, because parliamentary control at the global level does not exist.
The UN is also far from being able to provide this control and really represent the peoples of the world. Sitting here is not critical-minded representatives of the people with uncomfortable queries, not elected by the delegates to the national Executive of the refined circle of international diplomacy.
The democratic deficit in global politics is not about individuals or ideology, as is often considered as populists. He systematically determined. International cooperation often intergovernmental. It occurs between governments, that is, a monopoly of Executive power. International cooperation will quickly lead to the erosion of the separation of powers. In a separate state that would be called dictatorship. For decades this problem has fascinated scientists and left-wing activists.
Populists think ideologically, not patriotically
But only from the moment when the populists began to hunt for votes, they attracted attention. Problematic in this case is not raising issues of the populists and their solution. An example of Breccia — national sovereignty model of absolutism to the late XVI century, to replace multilateral agreements and international institutions at the global level. This can lead to the fact that parliaments and citizens will be more show their opinion. But our world has no longer consists of insulated Nations, but the closely intertwined economic, technological and environmental terms — and this alone undermines the strength of the impact of the national limited democracy.
Most of all, the democratic deficit observed in relation to global policy, because the policies of individual countries can have global consequences and thus affects people who cannot democratically influence the government. Here think about American politics, control, finances, climate, and defense, which in quantitative terms is primarily concerned with non-Americans — that is, citizens who did not elect the American President and are unable to remove it.
The way populist-nationalist exclusion can only lead to the widening of the impotence of the people in terms of negative effect of policies in other countries. For a relatively small European countries the call for greater national sovereignty is equivalent to the actual weakening of the state and the democratic influence of its citizens. Populists think ideologically, not Patriotic.
Speech in defense of the democratic world Parliament
This is the diagnosis, what about the solution? Unfortunately, innovative approaches to addressing the democratic deficit has attracted much less attention than the anachronistic, and the thought of an inhomogeneous efforts to revive the national component. But they do exist.
Especially convincing looks in connection with these matters initiative “parliamentary Assembly”, which for several years supported the establishment of a world Parliament of Nations of the elected representatives of the people. To thrive and global Executive is to join a global parliamentary “watchdog”. About 1.5 thousand of deputies from 120 countries are backing the campaign, as well as some heads of States and a number of scientists.
According to the MEP yo Lanena and activist Andreas Bummela, and people finally have to learn how things happen. They call their idea — a speech in defense of the “Democratic world Parliament”.
Their vision is of a world Parliament includes, by analogy with the European Parliament, the direct election of deputies from individual countries. It is necessary to make sure that parliamentarians do not represent the interests of national governments. Members of the world Parliament should directly serve the people, to fulfill the “universal sovereignty”.
Unlike the UN and the European Commission country should represent more than one person. Should the rule — one man, one vote — that is, the distribution of seats in accordance with population. This is also problematic because it can result in a Parliament with a non-democratic majority. Here come these undemocratic giants like China, Russia and Egypt. And in a global sense even reduced the number of democracies.
To prevent broad non-democratic bloc in the world Parliament, the philosopher jürgen Habermas stands for the representation of repressed peoples by not favourites to this country, as a certain world Parliament representative. According to Lanena and Bummela, it reminds the hegemony of the West. Must act the only criterion of access to the world Parliament of universal, free, secret and equal needs to be, at least, the election of deputies of the world in selected countries. Thus, it is for dictatorships, a world Parliament would be a “school of democracy”.
The democratization of global politics is slow and dreary
On the other hand, they advocate a gradual expansion of the competences of the Parliament, which should lead to the elimination of undemocratic influence. First world Parliament should have only an Advisory and monitoring role. Only then he should get the full powers of the national parliaments, this means, first and foremost, the development and adoption of global laws and control the Executive so far, only global bodies such as the world Bank, WTO, IMF and the various military bodies of the United Nations.
And Yes, all this fun must direct global taxes. They should form the basis of global tax policy that will put an end to competition between Nations in favor of corporations. The financial plan is expected to eliminate a high proportion of the transfer of capital to the already more than loaded in the fiscal plan of the citizens.
Global policy increasingly moved away from classical notions of democracy. This caused some significant problems that are similar to the birth pangs of a new global device. Building a globally uncontested political competences without the direct involvement of citizens will turn into grotesque dictatorial nightmare.
The idea that it would be sufficient to elect the Bundestag, which will then elect the Chancellor, who will appoint Ministers, who together with their non-elected staff will conduct foreign policy, even at European level and even on socio-legal television seems ridiculous. Work on the democratization of global politics is very slow and dreary. If to speak briefly — just exactly what it looks like the reality on the other side of the ideological fantasies. But, unfortunately, the role of climate it is absolutely not necessary.