Every gardener dreams of supereroe. But to give only the strong and healthy seedlings that will grow into powerful plants. And to obtain such seedlings without mineral fertilization, organic and microbiological fertilizers it is impossible.
On how to do it correctly, “Today” said the owner of the Kiev greenhouses for growing seedlings “Melnitsa” Alexander Melnik and experienced woman from Zhitomir Nelly Lupinus.
THE CURRENT REQUIREMENTS FOR FERTILIZER
In the old Soviet benefits for agronomists and gardeners can meet recommendations for fertilizing seedlings with solutions of ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, potassium chloride. But today we know that fertilizer must be chlorine-free, contain high plant-available phosphorus (which is not observed in the superphosphate), and in addition to the major nutrients, contain more magnesium, iron, zinc, molybdenum, boron, essential for the formulation of plant enzymes, chlorophyll, plant hormones. Ideally, if the trace elements in the fertilizer are in chelated associated with organic compounds form. In this form they are very easily assimilated by plants. The effect of them is visible through a matter of hours, whereas the trace elements in the form of salts have an effect on plants a few weeks after feeding. Fertilizer must be completely soluble and contain the food elements in the maximum concentration.
The best option is a modern complex fertilizers: “Supermaster”, “Plantaholic”, “Vertica”, “Planton”. Also, very nice if the fertilizer contains humates or fulvate. These soil compounds — salts of humic acids — contribute to the development of a strong root system, increase the resistance of seedlings to stress factors
Do not feed the seedlings immediately after germination and the more — soak seeds in a solution of mineral fertilizers. This is due to the fact that the salt solutions according to the law of diffusion draw water from plant cells. Young, immature seedlings with a delicate cell wall or only absorbing water the seeds fall in conditions of physiological drought. Moreover, in the beginning of its development to germination enough of those nutrients stored in the seed. So the first feeding of seedlings is carried out with the appearance of the plants first true leaves.
For the same reasons the first feeding of the seedlings should not be too concentrated solutions. Typically, adult plants of vegetable crops use solutions of 30-50 grams of fertilizer in 10 liters of water, and for the first feeding of seedlings is to use a solution of half the concentration is 15-20 g Weak solutions of fertilizing every week, in the morning, better in cloudy weather.
Fertilizing every week
FORMULA FOR YOUNG AND ADULTS
The needs of the seedlings vary in the course of growth and development. The first dressing should be not aimed at accelerating the growth of their aerial parts, and on the development of a strong root system. Therefore, there should be relatively little nitrogen, large quantities of water soluble, available to plants of phosphorus and potassium are relatively few (13.40.13 or 10.54.10). Highly desirable well as zinc, molybdenum and boron to enhance cell division.
Further strengthened the plant can take a lot of nitrogen, the main element in nutrition. But you shouldn’t feed seedlings exclusively nitrogen fertilizer — urea or ammonium nitrate. The optimal composition in this period will be the ratio of NPK 30.10.10 or classic Milliganesque 17.6.17.
Feeding is carried out once in 7-10 days, often (every 3-4 days), but weaker solutions of fertilizers. Before you dive or planting in open ground need again to suspend the growth of the aerial part of the plant and to encourage the development of a strong root system. So again, back to the fertilizer with a formula as the first feeding of the seedlings. In addition to the basic dressing, you need to spend 2-3 feeding solutions of chelates of trace elements and calcium nitrate (helps strengthen the plant tissues, increasing their resistance to stress, burns, pests and diseases).
Organic substances — humates of potassium and sodium, are potent stimulators of growth of plants. But besides them effective for growing seedlings are complexes of plant amino acids, betaines, plant polysaccharides. The preparations on their basis are the building blocks from which plants synthesize their own proteins with a minimum expenditure of energy and resources. Especially important are feeding with stress seedlings, frost, sudden temperature fluctuations. They considerably facilitate engraftment after transplantation of plants, their adaptation to the open ground. So it makes sense to alternate between organic fertilization and fertilization with mineral fertilizers.
IN THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT
Microbial fertilizer is a new trend in modern agriculture. Complexes effective microorganisms applied to the soil and on plants, accelerate the decomposition of soil organic matter, making it available seedlings, inhibit the growth of pathogens such as the causative agent of “black leg”, Fusarium, late blight. Timely processing of preparations of microorganisms”defenders” such as “Baikal”, “fitosporin”, “Trihodermin”, allow to obtain a more robust and healthy plants. Top dressing by microbiological fertilizer are the perfect complement to the previous two species and is especially important in the early development of plants.