“What’s going on and why? In Russia, a Gulag not. Yes, some people planted, but the Gulag-no. We have not shot EN masse, as under Stalin. But the impression is that it is much worse…” — the famous TV presenter Vladimir Pozner during the creative evening in Riga on the theme “the Confrontation of East and West” expressed bewilderment building up war hysteria in the world and the demonization of Putin, laid out on shelves Donald trump and marine Le Pen, called on the media to fulfil its duty to inform, not to propagandize.
Meeting with Posner in Latvia satisfied with enviable regularity. And every time the presenter easily assemble a full house, despite the fact that tickets cheap you will not name, and in the social networks of his critics and then portend the beginning of his end. Especially after the scandalous story on the program “Minute of fame” in which Posner has not given a berth in the finals of the dancer with no feet on the basis that a physical limitation does not allow to judge objectively.
Mr Putin himself admits that Latvia connects more than touring — his wife then the country. And readily recalls his first visit to Riga in 1968.
“I came in the summer, one. It was a bad time in my personal life, so was looking for loneliness. Sat on the train and went for a 65 km from Riga — in Zvejniekciems. Fishing village with large, solid houses… Began to search the room. Was walking down the street saw a man, a short, graying, wiry, in camouflage pants. I asked him — he looked sternly, and said, Russian is not give up.
Then I decided to go to the other side: “Sprechen Sie Deutsch?” He replied: “Ja-Ja!”. Talking. In the end he gave me a room. And told about their fate. He spent 10 years in the camps. Said, I’m not complaining, because your shot a lot, so 10 years is normal… in the Evenings he arrived his father Carl. In bourgeois Latvia he was holding two vegetable stalls. In the Soviet — was one of the first chairmen of the collective farm. I asked him, when was better? He said… now. Then life was good, but I had a lot of work. And now we live well, but you can do nothing”.
Posner spoke about their observations of modern Latvia. “I’m on the radio said that we were promised that when freed, will live in France or Germany, but did not. Why? I asked: why do you want to live like France or Scandinavia, and not Latvia? If it was my house, I absolutely do not want to he was. You can imagine that the Frenchman will say: I want to live in England? Yes, God forbid! In Russia I also see this strange combination. On the one hand, they say that the mind can not understand it, and with another — the Russian wants to be on someone similar. Americans are bad, but wearable jeans, and Coca-Cola drink. National psychology is a very interesting question.”
The moderator noted that in the entire history of his meetings with the audience to the microphone never came Latvian Latvian, their attitude to the Russian, and not asked a question. “I keep thinking why? They are not interested I? I say, they all left. I know they left most often to England. And how many will return, in connection with Brecitos”.
Posner gave his farewell and the local Russian: “I say to you there are bad… But I have some ask: and you learned the language? I respond: why?! But then I have a question, what do you want? You live in a country that has its own language and culture, so make a little effort. Why, when people come to England or America, they consider it necessary to learn the language? But not here? Don’t understand.”
Overall, the meeting lasted two hours, during which Posner outlined his vision on the topics that concern him and answered questions from the audience.
World politics: trump, Putin, marine Le Pen, nuclear war and pacifists
About the danger of Donald trump
The first thing I want to stress that Donald trump has gained three million less votes than Hillary Clinton. He won, due to the properties of the American electoral system. Most Americans did not vote for him. In Russia, this election was glad. First, because the bad trump talked about Russia during the election campaign — he did not scold Putin, has expressed a desire to negotiate with him. And people are tired of feeling a possible collision. There is no doubt that most Russians want normal relations with America. People are tired of the confrontation, which occurred long, long before the Crimea and Ukraine.
It seemed that the winning trump something move. At the same time, Clinton said bad things about Russia and mainly Putin who was compared with Hitler. And I thought, what if she won the election, how would she then spoke with a man who was compared with Hitler? Still, to meet they had so demanded by the situation.
But you have to understand what a trump. People that politics had nothing and had no experience. I think he didn’t expect to become President. Wanted to be mean and earn some capital. But then went to the end — that kind of person. First question? If he can run a country without their political team? My feeling: it’s unlikely. Even Reagan was Governor of California two terms.
Today it is in Russia understand. It is unclear what the relationship will be. It is unclear what his program is. In all this there is something almost operatic. The impression is that now the curtain closes and everything goes fine, but it still is a joke…
Never before has a President of the United States was not at war with the media, claiming that journalists are enemies of the American people. Never before has the media, with rare exceptions, so not massively opposed their President. In America the President is always treated with reverence. Even if my candidate lost and the other won, the American said: “This is my President.” And today many say, “he’s not my President.” America divided.
What does it mean Europe, the EU, and therefore Latvia? What is the real attitude of the tramp toward NATO and the EU? It is not clear — he says so. Today, no one knows what tomorrow will bring in this relationship. And when such uncertainty, there is a danger…
About the reality of nuclear war
Today on high alert. No one knows what to expect. In Russia believe that the US is the main and perhaps the only real enemy. This opinion exists among the people… As in Latvia: who is the main enemy — Russia. Some of my friends were in Sweden. Went to the store, spoke English, but the seller heard the accent and asked, where are you? From Russia. The seller asks: are you going to attack Sweden? She believes in it.
For Russia, America is the enemy, and for United States — Russia. So says more than 70% of the population here and there. Voltage is not less than in the worst years of the cold war. The only reason people have forgotten that, if God forbid, there will be collision — it will necessarily be nuclear. Because if you take conventional weapons, Russia is much weaker than the United States. In Russia there is only one way — nuclear weapons. What does that mean, hope you understand: after all this will be China and little India. This is no joke.
It surprises me that in those days there was a real protest. In Western Europe, people took to the streets — there were demonstrations against the war, hundreds of thousands thought it his duty to convey their views to their governments. Today it is not. As if there is no danger. It’s weird.
About the chances for the presidency of France marine Le Pen
Said that in the Netherlands decided that the power comes from the big … Not only did not come, and took third place. Believe it the power will not come. She gets more than 50 percent in the first round — no one will gain. But, most likely, she will lose. Most French people will not do it. The French are still a special people with a special biography.
It’s not the same what happened to US. No need to compare. Although, I admit that trump could also be a disaster. Do not be surprised if he doesn’t sit out for four years — whether you will get on the impeachment, whether it will kill you. In America it is.
Suppose that I am wrong, and Le Pen wins, it will be a disaster for France and Europe. This is a very bad sign. So people had enough, and they want simple solutions. Although the issues are complex. What to do with the refugees? A simple solution is to expel to hell. Will not work. Get a bloodbath. But it’s nice to say “I have them all expelled! A wall built a hundred-meter height and not letting them!” But it’s not a solution, but rather a complication of the situation. If people go to it is a very bad sign. So, people tired to think.
About the demonization of Putin
I arrived in the Soviet Union when I was 19-th year, was still alive, Stalin. It was a time of “doctors ‘ case” — “murderers in white coats”. All the Soviet people, it was reported that Jewish doctors killed Gorky, and Soviet military commanders. It was preparing to send all Jews to Siberia. But, fortunately, Stalin died two months after my arrival.
I remember that Stalin, the U.S. was treated is not the best way, but it did not make a demon like Hitler. But what made Putin — I’ve never seen. And actually, what Putin did this for the whole world? Took the Crimea? And this can not be right to worry? And this is proof that he will go to Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, Estonia and Poland. Made from the head of the country of the demon, a horror story is real. View American, British, French magazines, there on the cover, Putin is the devil. This is not journalism, but quite another.
What happens and why? In Russia, a Gulag not. Yes, some people planted, but the Gulag-no. Not shot EN masse, as under Stalin. But the impression is that it is much worse… People go around without any problems — an exit visa from the Russian authorities do not want. People read what they want. Go to the movies and see any movie. Internet please… What’s the worst that happens? But people believe in it. And creates public opinion.
Shortly before Hitler took poison, his Marshal and associate Hermann Goering gave an interview to an American journalist. He said no one wants to fight neither the Germans nor the French, nor Russian, but do they make decisions? Them takes power. And it’s not hard to get everyone to follow him. No matter: it’s a fascist dictatorship, Communist dictatorship, parliamentary democracy… just Need to scare people and convince them that they attacked. And pacifists need to expose the traitors. And it works everywhere. And he understood what I was saying.
I am very concerned about the feeling that is about to attack, this fear — much exist. And not just in one country and not suddenly. This part of the day everywhere. Therefore, the case can be fatal.
I’ve no idea and actually not a big fan of Putin’s policies. I do not trust politicians and the media, which largely ceased to be the media, and have become a means of propaganda and persuasion of the audience. This happens in democratic countries. Where it seems to be full independence. The situation is dangerous. Alas, until we have awakened and don’t understand it.
About politicians in the program “Posner”
My goal is to educate the public to understand who manages it, what kind of people. To say that policy is more dry, it’s not the right word. If you’ve seen my gear with Spring (Irina Yarovaya, Deputy of the State Duma from the party “United Russia”, Deputy Chairman of the State Duma from October 2016. Member of General Council of party “United Russia” — approx. ed.)? Certainly it cannot be called dry. Yes, government officials are more cautious — so around the world. Unfortunately, mostly politicians refuse to come. Instead take the opportunity to explain its policy. They are afraid of questions, afraid to call things by their names that they will not be able to respond. I’m not going to ask them about the dog. So I get a lot of refusals from officials…
Does not politicians I can’t. It would be wrong. On the contrary, struggling. Repeatedly invited Putin — until I get rejected. But I will continue to call. Volodin recently was invited, but he says he is very busy.
About the unreality of friendship of peoples
It is difficult to ensure that we treated without bias towards people of another skin colour that we are different. That different dress and behave, speak a different language — this is the basis of all prejudice. We are afraid of these people… the Ancient Romans said “man is a wolf” — and it is largely still so.
When Kipling wrote “East is East and West is West, and never the TWAIN shall meet” — he was largely right. It’s more the attitude and perception of life. And religious things play a huge role: Confucianism and Buddhism have nothing in common with Christianity. Try to imagine that it is possible to cancel, I personally can’t. No globalism, I do not see. Another thing that you can live. But different perception of the world from birth — it is, it’s OK to overcome it should not be.
Russia and the Russians: the scandal at the ‘Moment of glory’, fatal Orthodoxy, the fifth column
Why chose to live and work in Russia
It was chosen for me by my father, I were brought to Russia. I did almost immediately leave the country, and the Soviet Union lasted quite a long time. If I could leave then I would leave for sure. Moreover, when in 1957 in Moscow held the world festival of youth and students, I got to the Americans and for two weeks live with them — then I thought to leave. These were my people. I understand why they laugh, how to walk, talk, eat. When I told my dad I wanted to go to the US, he said try it I’ll report you to the KGB…
When it became possible to go under Gorbachev, I was married, two children profession. I would have gone anyway. In ‘ 91 I went to work in the United States — didn’t think I’d come back. But it so happened that I lost my job, Our program was closed, considering it too left — other work could not find. And in Russia I only and waited. I’m back and can say, succeeded. I’m a pretty successful journalist. I know that for many I important and necessary, but what could be more important… in France in ‘ 83 I want to stand in line for me!
About their full freedom
I have a unique position. I can ride and ride. We have apartments in Paris and London. There is nothing that I’m terribly bored and can’t ride. It happened… the Important thing is that I’m free. Unfortunately, not all appreciate that word. In Russia freedom of the press and views occupies the 25th place in the scale of values. I can see why. It is difficult to estimate something you didn’t. And when it was then taken away, then Yes. And for many people freedom is a theoretical thing. To me this is tremendously important. Yes, I work in Russia, and my work gives me immense joy and… the sixth sense of the Soviet people — a feeling of deep satisfaction.
About religion and the crucial role of Orthodoxy for Russia
In my opinion, the solution (baptized Rus), adopted by Prince Vladimir, who put a huge monument near the Kremlin, proved fatal for the formation of the Russian mentality. I’m not a fan of religion, but when there are conversations on this topic, I suggest: let’s put the country’s welfare and comfort level of life, life allowance, care about the people and real democracy. We will see that in the first place — the Protestant countries: Scandinavia, Finland, Britain… More — Catholic countries: France, Italy, Spain… On the Orthodox countries — Greece, Bulgaria, Russia… This is no coincidence…
The last thing I would like to hurt the feelings of believers. Being an atheist, I never set this goal. I have read the Bible — the old and New Testaments — there are many wise things. I’ve read the Koran twice — there’s a lot of wise things. They resonate with the Bible. Sure to read the Qur’an and the Bible everyone should at least have the cultural monument, with a mass of wisdom, the other thing is that it does not work. More than two thousand years, there is the Christian faith, and the person got better. And look at what is happening with Islam is that people became better, kinder, more tolerant, more open? Nothing of the sort! Does not work, unfortunately.
About the scandal at “Minute of fame”
I told (the dancer with a disability), which I feel is: when a person has physical problems, it puts judges in a difficult position. Another thing, when the competition takes place without a subjective jury. For example, a man runs a hundred yards or throwing the javelin. Then everything is clear. And here it is necessary to make a subjective decision. His condition is affected — we’re not robots. Said, that although I admire, but against his participation. On the Internet I went to the shaft of indignation that someone heated up… Then I went to the guy and said sorry if offended — did not want. He was harsh and said he would not participate…
The noise continued. But the more it lasted the more I was convinced: the question is not what happened with this man. In fact, in Russia the fate of people with such problems — physical or mental — is unenviable. We have few toilets and lifts for wheelchairs. Many houses have no ramps. The attitude to disabled people in General, indifferent. So what’s the reason for the disturbance? That there is no greater pleasure than to throw a famous person. I so understood it. It’s not compassion or sympathy for the disabled. There is in Russia this much sympathy. Yet not see it.
About the attitude to the disabled
Everything must come slowly. If you have a particular public desires. For example, in Moscow five years ago to drive was difficult. No one is missed, each other cut, but crossing the street was dangerous. Today in Moscow, all the cars stop as soon as a person steps onto the crossing. Gradually it became clear that it’s more convenient: I miss today I miss you tomorrow. It’s not because someone at the top said it should be. But because of understanding. Yes, of course, there is a political desire and will, but most importantly, when in a society there is an understanding that to live is wrong.
The same is true of attitudes towards persons with disabilities. It can not be decreed. It gradually. Of course, it is important that this topic is raised in the movie, the school that teachers and parents talked about this with children. This should accumulate quantitatively, which then will cause changes in the qualitative.
About the role of the Russian language and culture outside of Russia
There are countries that were conquered and became part of the Empire where the language of the conqueror has become the main — say, the countries of Latin America, where the main languages are Spanish and Portuguese. The indigenous population — the Indians — was virtually destroyed, and was at a different stage of development. The language of these tribes, in fact, disappeared.
Another case where a country was annexed to the Empire, and the language of this Empire was the main, but this country had its own language and history. For example, Algeria or Vietnam. When they are freed, the main language was not French, Arabic or Vietnamese. This is a natural path of development.
If to speak about the Baltic States, that is not to say that they were conquered, but they were occupied in the Second world war. It was a part of the territory which the Soviet Union took. It was a country with its own history, language, alphabet, literature. It’s not very backward tribes.
When the Empire collapsed, and the country became independent, it is obvious to me that at least the Imperial language still exists and will exist, but over time its value will decrease. Because the Russian-speaking population will not increase — the Russian will be less. So the role of the Russian language in these countries will decrease and not have the old values. This happens everywhere: in Georgia, Armenia…
It’s frustrating for you, but at the history, we must look at how it is and not as we would like. This does not mean that we should abandon language and schools, but this is a natural progression… I would philosophically looked at it, though I understand that for the Russian-speaking population is unpleasant. Time will tell if I was wrong, so I say: Yes, I was wrong.
About activities contrary to “public opinion”
It is necessary in any situation to behave normally. You never know what they say about you? It is not necessary to pay attention. If there is a specific conversation with someone — can explain. In Russia, too, there are people who are called fifth column. We have recently established the organization “Tsar-grad” which I made in a hundred of the main Russophobes 2016. Am I going to react? Funny! Let them say! Most importantly, know who you are, and do what you think is right.
The choice of Posner: a profession that deals with conscience, the confusion, the formula for success
About your choice of profession
In 16 I accidentally became acquainted with the experiments of the great Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov — conditioned reflexes and scared into this, deciding that I would become a physiologist and reveal the secrets of the human brain. Enrolling in the biology Department, by the end of the 3rd course understood that I am not a scientist, not the head… One of my main actions was that I didn’t go to biology, like it or put pressure on my parents.
Then I wanted to be a translator is to translate English poetry into Russian. Two years worked as the great translator Samuil Marshak, but after two years I realized that all my life to do not want. Accidentally phoned a friend: create a new APN — looking for people with languages, would you go? Marshak paid 70 rubles, and then offered 190 rubles. And I already had the family went. And hit the propaganda. But still it was fun, and gave fun with different people, and I realized that it was mine.
One of the major ills of our educational system that it does not help a person to understand what it. Many are unhappy in their profession and do not receive from it pleasure. My dream is to retire or to find the treasure, get rich and not work. And I was lucky I’m happy in my profession.
About the transaction with conscience
For a long time I was a promoter — worked for the foreign political propaganda of the Soviet Union in the press Agency “Novosti”, in the journal Soviet Life, which were published in America, in exchange for the magazine “America”, which was published for the Soviet reader, then moved on to radio and television of the USSR — led programs in the United States.
I was brought up by his father-an emigrant who returned to the USSR, because they supported the Soviet system. I was raised in a very Pro-Soviet spirit and have long believed in the idea. Understand that not all brilliant, but the idea is good. I’m not a fan of capitalism is an unjust organization of society. However, apparently, justice at all.
I was doing my job very well, because faith is important… Gradually I began to understand that I can’t do it, my faith is weakening. The father in France was the friend of Joseph Gorton, who returned to Russia in the 36th and 37th of his arrest — he received 25 years imprisonment, as a British spy. In the end, he was rehabilitated, and my father in 1954 were faced with him in Moscow. Tom had no place to live — dad offered to move in with us because her mother went to Germany, leaving me alone. He offered to stay with me.
Once he told me: I wish you one, no matter what happens so that you just got up, went to the bathroom to brush my teeth and saw my face in the mirror, he suddenly wanted to spit at him… At some point in their advocacy work I started to think about it. It was painful to part with faith and to admit that engaged in unsavory and sinful. But when in the end I’m gone.
Maybe because of this I was able to make some decisions for myself. I’ll never a member of any party, will never support any state that no one will work and will independent and will be doing the work as they see fit, or not going to do it at all… I still do it. Mind you, I’m not a positioner, not in favour or against — I am doing my job, to inform. Rarely Express their own opinion. And I’m not in the state of the First channel buys my program. Are two different things.
About turning points and parting with delusions
The first serious blow for me was Czechoslovakia in 68, the year when the Soviet Union sent troops. Any way it was impossible to justify. But I had to justify it in their work. I found the argument: he said that the West is beneficial to provoke, to failed socialism with a human face. Because socialism with a human face — it is socialism plus Western democracy. And who can stand against it? And all this is specially made to have the Soviet Union had no choice. Now I am ashamed that I said this. This was the first episode when sick.
The second is when I was in the 77th year released “the countries of peoples democracy” in Hungary… I asked to go to Budapest — I was allowed. Nice town. I walked in. Suddenly I saw a cinema — on the front is written in English “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest with Jack Nicolson”- “one Flew over the cuckoo’s nest” with Jack Nicholson”. I then knew neither Nicholson nor “cuckoo”. But the movie was in English with Hungarian subtitles. I was delighted and went — this movie changed my life.
There is a scene where the hero Nicholson egged people from the madhouse, they straightened up. He disputes that can tear the sink from the floor. He swell the veins in the forehead from stress, but nothing happens. Turn, and they were laughing at him. He says: At least I tried it (“At least I tried”). I realized that the meaning of life in it — you must try it, it doesn’t matter if you fail. This for me was a revelation and completely changed life.
The third is to overcome fear. On 19 August 1991 there was a coup, and on September 22 I had to go to America. When the coup happened, it was clear that it was all over: the army, the KGB, the party and the government — all against Gorbachev. This is the end. I was already well-known in the United States and England. Phone was blowing up. I didn’t answer. Walked around the White house thought. And then I realized that if I don’t talk, we won’t be able to live with myself — then I’ll spit in your reflection. Understand that this is the end that most likely, I will be arrested and will not go to America, and in the other direction, but couldn’t help it. And at that moment I stopped being afraid. Decided: I’m going to do it.
So Prague, film and coup — these are things that have played a special role in my life. Though there were many other.
About your atheism
I know that after death I will be buried. I’m a believer and non-religious people. Wish when I die I burned and the ashes scattered over my favorite city of Paris. I hope it will happen.
In fact, different gods invented by the churches. Because of the statements “only our God is right” so much blood shed and so much hate — it’s all politics and has nothing to do with real existence. Who cares for whom I pray? This does not prevent me to live. If I is not persecuted. It is invented for the government, which has always been strongly linked with the Church. The game: infidel, infidels… I’m an atheist. In the words of don Juan in the great Moliere’s play: “I really believe that twice two is four”.
About the most valuable qualities
In people I appreciate mind, kindness, loyalty. Hate, envy, lie and all that is related to betrayal.
About the language of their thoughts
I think in the language, which at the moment say. And when you’re alone — different. Sometimes in several languages. Depends on the situation. Sometimes suddenly in English start to think. It’s called schizophrenia actually.
About his formula of success
There is no formula! Otherwise everyone would be successful. For me personally, the main thing is patience. Because I became famous when I was 52 years old. Some people already think about retirement, and I just broke. Maybe that’s why so long is my age? Just need not to give up — to be true to myself.
My favorite American statesman Lincoln once wrote to his great friend: “If I have to respond responded to all what I say to my critics, it was time to close the shop. I will do everything I can as I can, and while you can. And if in the end it turns out that I was right, all the words of my detractors will not mean anything. And if the result will be different, the 12 angels, singing glory to me, nothing will change”. This is the formula of success. Do what you think is right and do it.