How to drive a car in winter, it is written quite a lot. But the vast majority of these tips on defensive driving. This time focus on the usual urban traffic, writes “za rulem”.
Skills of defensive driving, of course, useful, but they are used when one of the drivers made a mistake. But how to ride, not to get into a similar situation?
The Rules state that the driver is required to observe a safe distance and a lateral interval depending on the driving conditions (visibility, traction, etc.). But what is a “safe distance”? For example, in the tube, when the speed of movement of the minimum, the distance equal to the length of the C-segment vehicle, will be enough for the average driver, not to get into an emergency situation. But imagine that you’re moving at the speed of 50 km/h If the driver of the car in front starts to brake sharply, likely to avoid the accident will not succeed. For a while, until you react and move your foot from the accelerator to the brake, there is a chance to “catch up” ahead of the going car. So the choice of course focus on your own reflexes and driving skills. Understanding comes with experience, but if not, better keep your distance with a small margin. When you are behind someone “props”, blink emergency gang. If the driver follows you, do not increase the distance, you better make way, because if obstacle, you will have time to stop, and he was gone.
In any situation it is useful sometimes to look not only at the taillights ahead of the car, but to look behind him. Through the Windows if they are tinted, or shifted half a length to the left, without leaving their lane. In this case, you do not have to wait until you will light up the stop lamps to initiate braking. Knowing the traffic situation in advance, you can start slowing down in advance, safely and more comfortably.
And be doubly careful, leaving the winter outside of the big city. As a rule, in big cities the streets are treated with reagents that are fast enough to cope with ice and snow porridge. The “hook” in the parlance of the riders, in such conditions no worse than summer in the rain. But on the outskirts of the reactants treated, not all of the street. Pavement slippery driver it is important to adapt to changing conditions.
Skills of defensive driving, as a rule, applicable when there is room for maneuver in order to avoid a sudden obstacle. The city is often such a space is not — you are trapped in the lane for traffic passing cars, and the speed is not so great.
In city traffic is more important than care, and the most effective tool with which help the driver to avoid accidents, a safe distance.
As for the lateral interval, for example, this summer’s relatively easy. In large cities the roads are marked. Stick to it, and in most cases this will be enough not to get into an emergency situation. But in the winter, especially during heavy rainfall, the layout sometimes is not visible under a layer of snow or dirt. In case of danger, it is important not to make sudden movements: for example, if passing a car on the right began to shift in your direction, you should not shy away from it, not convinced of the safety of this maneuver. After all, if there had been left by another passing car caused the accident is likely to recognize you. Especially if contact with the companion right not happened.
And, of course, tyres must be in season, i.e. winter. And shod not only on the driving wheels, and on all four. All-season tires it is better not to use: versatile rubber compound that is equally effective in hot and cold weather, does not exist. And there was a strong frost, vsesezonka just will freeze and braking performance is considerably reduced.
Remember the heavy snowfall that hit the city. Roadsides and yards covered with snow, the city is choking in traffic. Even the most efficient municipal service is not able to clear the snow for hours. So in the trunk it would be good to have a small shovel, telescopic, so it does not take up much space. The shovel will remove, say, high snow parapet, which left a tractor. Or snow, which filled the utility front bumper of the vehicle, removing snow in the morning. Shovel choose not anyhow what, and for snow removal, and best of all metal, not plastic, or at least with a metal edge. Plastic can quickly break on slightly promerznut.
Leaving from the Parking lot to protect the car from snow. Including the roof. This is for your safety. Do not forget to clean the optics, so you can see the brake lights and direction indicators. Then the other drivers don’t have to guess about your intention to turn. One should not leave snow on the rear window and side mirrors, hoping for the function of electric heating. If the layer of snow is large enough, it will melt immediately, and visibility is some time limited. By the way, is clear of snow before driving and the rear side window, even if there is no second row passengers. Why? Yes, just in the trajectory of the vehicles intersect at a variety of angles, and frequently to give way to have the car moving in “blind” zone, when it is not visible neither in the front side window or side mirror.
Heavy snowfall for a couple of hours turning the car into a snowdrift. Simple brushing will not do here — the bulk of the snow is better to remove with a shovel. It is important not to damage the paintwork of the car.
After a snowfall, you should completely clean the car from snow. With snow on the roof of the ride is not: under heavy braking all the snow from the roof will be glass and the hood of the car, limiting visibility, and so to crash nearby.
Better to Park in reverse. Actually, this year-round advice. As a rule, the clearance under the rear bumper more than the front, so the chance to damage it less. In winter there is another danger. For example, even if you are sure that the curb to which you get low enough and the snow soft and will not scratch the paint of your car, you still don’t drive in bumper in the snow. If a sharp temperature drop and the snow will freeze, turning to stone. Departed, you can easily lose a bumper.
The car is hopelessly stuck in the snow? Not the BUCs, it is better to dig it up. This will save time and nerves. If you have to pass through a loose section of snow or climb in lift, then it should be done the course in second gear. If the wheels get into a slip, add gas no need. So the car will finally bury. Better, they say, “to lay gas”, that is to pripustit the accelerator pedal but not completely, allowing the tire to catch. Thus it is possible to overcome a small snowy parapet or to pass a slippery stretch of road.
If the vehicle is stuck in snow, it is better to dig or push out with the help chelovekov. The slipping will only aggravate the situation.
The tire pressure decrease is not necessary. This technique will only help you if you are stuck in very deep snow somewhere in the woods. And in the city flying at half-mast to ride on the tire is just dangerous. The wheel can easily fly off the rim. For example, with a sudden maneuver.
All movements when driving on the winter road should be smooth, without sudden impacts on the steering wheel or the gas pedal. Dergone only razbalansirovat car. As a consequence there is a car and the city to deal with him difficult, even a trained driver. It is at the site of defensive driving a lot of free space while on the road you are surrounded by other members of the movement, the sidewalk are parked cars, and pedestrians may be on the road. Because any skidding could lead to serious consequences.
Braking, again, you need to smoothly and with a reserve range. The ABS will reduce braking distance only in comparison with the braking with the wheels fully locked, but no more. First and foremost, it is designed to ensure that the machine remains controlled during braking. Do not neglect and other electronic assistant — the ESP stabilization system. Do not disconnect it. Yes, at high speed in case of drift of electronics can “strangle” the engine by turning the driver in the viewer. But at urban speeds the ESP will adjust the trajectory, not allowing to start the skid.
Four-wheel drive car behaves on a slippery road is more stable than monoprivodnom. In the winter the advantages of the wheel formulas 4×4 undeniable. And swept the Parking lot will come easier and on the road will feel more confident than drivers monoperiodic cars. But to be afraid of cars with rear wheel drive is not worth it. Yes, on the winter road to manage them harder than front – or all-wheel drive cars. It is important not to hurry and the time to take our foot off the gas pedal, if you start sliding the rear axle.
Home security system is in the head of the driver. And if the person does not give itself the report that does not comply with distance than speed, even the most expensive car is equipped with a variety of electronic security systems, from trouble on the road will not save.