Over the past months in the scientific community is actively discussing the news that the National Aeronautics and space administration NASA was finally able to find a parallel Universe where time runs backwards. This news has excited social media users, who were divided into two camps. Some unconditionally trust NASA, and others reject the very idea of the existence of a parallel Universe, believing that scientists wishful thinking.
It should be noted that the rumors about the discovery of a parallel Universe were greatly exaggerated because they were based on recent results obtained from the impulse response of the antenna is NASA (ANITA), which uses the entire surface of Antarctica as a laboratory! The research process is as follows: high-energy cosmic particles — neutrinos interact with the ice cover of the continent, causing the amplitude spectrum of the sequence of radio pulses that can be captured by antennas. Incidentally, the antenna is placed on the huge balloons that can reach a height of 37 kilometers above the surface of the ice continent.
A neutrino is a subatomic particle. It is so small that we don’t notice a trillion neutrinos per second pass through our fingers. We don’t see this thread, because neutrinos have virtually no effect on ordinary matter. On average, only one neutrino interacts with our body for our entire life. Neutrinos are particles without charge, which have virtually no mass, so their capture is more like Ghost hunting. Thus, scientists have always had to use clever tricks, particularly the ANITA antenna to capture these highly energetic cosmic particles.
In 2018 the Antarctic impulse transient antenna ANITA started to get anomalous radio signals, which caused a stir in the scientific community. It is likely that this occurred due to particles that passed through the first surface of the southern continent, and then to ANITA. The above-mentioned radio signals are reflected from the ice cover of Antarctica, which opened the door for all sorts of hypotheses and discussions. According to one version, due to the nature of the Antarctic ice sheet. However, some researchers stated that this may be an indication of something else that is beyond our imagination.
So there was the basic hypothesis put forward by researchers, according to which our universe is perhaps only a mirror image of another parallel world. According to supporters of this hypothesis, both Universes have the same starting point, that is, they arose as a result of the Big Bang.
In order to understand, let’s first look at a modern cosmological model of the “Lambda-CDM”, according to which our universe appeared after the Big Bang. We know that our universe is rapidly expanding, so if we imagine that the universe is a movie now showing, if we want to rewind the film back to 13.8 billion years ago and see a starting point from which began the history of our Universe.
Unfortunately, there’s nothing much we know about this point. Moreover, we are unable to discover anything about what happened during the Big Bang or during the first 400 years of the Universe. Scientists believe that the universe was so dark, I do not miss any light, and then formed the first space, the atoms and photons of light. They made such a conclusion based on pretty convincing evidence.
Researchers that supports modern cosmological model, ask the question: “Why don’t we rewind the film back to the Big Bang?”. Of course, this is not just an idea that suddenly appeared in the minds of physicists, because they have long been accustomed to use mathematical equations to solve all the problems facing them.
One of these problems is that the cosmological model of the “Lambda-CDM”, in some cases, violate a fundamental physical law “charge, parity and time” (CPT Symmetry). To understand the basic principle, you need to look at smooth ball. When we look at it from any point, i.e., right, left, top or bottom, its shape remains unchanged. For example, Cuba, we can’t see his face because the projections overlap each other.
It should be noted that the cube “breaks the rotational symmetry”, and the ball is rotationally symmetric. In particle physics also there are several types of symmetry, but, of course, they differ greatly. For example, the ball can only come close. Most physicists believe that the principle of “charge, parity and time” shall not be violated. However, the new hypothesis States that in order to preserve symmetry, we should imagine the opposite of our Universe, there is another parallel world.
This hypothesis does not reject the Big Bang theory, but rather proves it, since the scientists take it as a starting point the emergence of antimatter. In other words, after the Big explosion there was a parallel universe where the space-temporary continuum similar to ours, but with one difference — it is the opposite.
For example, in a parallel Universe is not moving the way we do, but in reverse. In addition, everything looks inverted, as if we were looking in the mirror. But notice that it looks this way only in our perception. If in a parallel Universe, there are residents, then they all look normal, not inverted. However, if they look at our Universe, they will see it like they look in the mirror. In other words, both Universes will meet in the Big Bang, and each of them will decide that all happened in the distant past!
Here the question arises: what is the relationship of the ANITA experiment with a parallel Universe? The answer is: a new cosmological model a parallel Universe involves the appearance of a particle in neutrino new type, not previously known to physics of elementary particles. It is likely that these particles were discovered by scientists during the experiment ANITA.
It should be noted that the problem is not that the results of the experiment ANITA linked to a parallel Universe, but rather that they confirm the existence of this parallel Universe. However, in the best case — this is just a guess, despite the fact that we discovered the particle, the neutrino. It is likely that our finding may relate to other things.
The hypothesis of the existence of a parallel Universe exists quite long. A few years ago a research group at Oxford University put forward a similar hypothesis in a study published in the scientific journal “Physics Letters B”. In the aforementioned study States that the Big Bang was not the beginning of time: at this point, just changed the orientation space.
The new hypothesis does not reject the Big Bang theory, but rather interpreterpath some established ideas in a different way. Scientists from Oxford University did not introduce any new concepts, do not change the General theory of relativity, which explains the evolution of the Universe, and just work on solving the problem called “the Problem of Gorizont” (“Horizon Problem”).
It is well known that in the past, the expansion rate of the Universe was faster than the speed of light. This means that there are elementary particles, which appeared immediately after the Big Bang, but have not had the opportunity to meet each other. To better understand, imagine you have a Cup of hot water and a Cup of cold water, but you just spread them away from each other. In one Cup will remain cold water and the other hot. But if we leave them for a while or chat, then in each Cup water is about the same temperature.
Here is just a “Problem horizon”. Particles, which are rapidly separated from each other at the time of the birth of the Universe, must differ in their characteristics, but their influence is not manifested in our Universe, because it is homogeneous. Here an important question arises: why do different regions of the Universe that have never had contact with each other, have identical properties?
To date, there are two possible answers. The first suggests that there was some kind of event in the first moments of the Universe that caused this unexplained interaction. Perhaps the space itself was different from what we know today, and the speed of light was probably much more. As for the second option, he says that, apparently, the Big Bang was not the beginning of time. Somehow particles have time to mingle with each other before the Big Bang.
All the above-mentioned hypotheses did not come out of nowhere. They are designed to solve problems faced by the modern cosmological model. Take, for example, research work that led to extensive discussions in the scientific community in 2017 due to the fact that it spoke of the possibility of collision of our Universe with a parallel in the early stage of evolution. This hypothesis was based on the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation, which modern models are unable to explain. Moreover, it echoes the theory of “Bubble Universes” that arose after the emergence of the theory of Chaotic inflation (Eternal Inflation).
Unfortunately, all of the hypothesis about a parallel Universe face a fundamental problem — it is impossible to prove its existence empirically. To the question “are There parallel Universes?” difficult to answer in the present state of science. It is likely that we will never be able to answer this question, but who knows? Maybe someday we will be able to do it. So now all we can do is continue to work on developing a more accurate mechanisms and more acceptable models at once to prove all hypotheses.
Until such moment has not come, we can not consider these hypotheses as established fact. We are still in the country of the imagination, but our dreams — that’s something worth thinking about. Perhaps one day we will answer our most urgent questions: what is dark energy? What is dark matter? What happened in the Big Bang? What is the time? What is life? Who are we?