Immunologists are sounding the alarm: the Ukrainians do not do compulsory re-vaccination against diphtheria in adulthood. One of the reasons is ignorance. Ukrainians mistakenly consider that vaccination in childhood for the rest of their life, say doctors. The website “Today” has learned what shots they need to be done again after 20 years and what will happen if not vaccinated.
What immunizations need to be repeated
By order of the Ministry of health, Ukrainians regularly need to undergo revaccination against diphtheria and tetanus. Revaccination is repeated grafting. Lifelong immunity is formed after some vaccines, e.g. measles, mumps, rubella. Immunity against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis persists for 7-10 years. The first revaccination for the prevention of the latter diseases in adults must go through in 26 years. Then repeated every 10 years. In some countries, adults also get vaccinated against whooping cough – in Ukraine, the epidemic situation. Personal immunization schedule for each person and is controlled by the doctor-immunologist or therapist’s place of residence.
Diphtheria begins to manifest itself as angina. In the throat can appear grayish film, complicating breathing. The toxin of diphtheria bacteria enters the bloodstream and affects the heart, nervous system and kidneys. According to statistics from UNICEF, even with timely treatment, every fifth patient dies. The bacteria are transmitted by airborne droplets. Vaccination against diphtheria prevents the development and complication of the disease. UNICEF recommends re-vaccination every 10 years. The same term is specified in the decree of the Ministry of health.
The toxin of the bacterium tetanus affects the nervous system. The disease is manifested by severe convulsions, which can lead to bone fractures. According to UNICEF, five to 10% of patients die. In severe forms of tetanus the mortality rate reaches over 50%. The infection transmitted during contact with contaminated soil in the wound or through contaminated objects such as nail. To maintain immunity against tetanus should be revaktsinirujut time in 10 years.
The bacterium causes inflammation of the nose, throat and lungs. The disease is accompanied by bouts of spasmodic cough, which disrupts the breathing until it stops. Is transmitted by airborne droplets. Full course of vaccination against pertussis induces immunity for five to seven years. In Kiev, the vaccination against pertussis in a private clinic will cost 645-720 hryvnia.
Vaccinated against tetanus and diphtheria should be done every 10 years. Photo: S. Vaganov
In the law of Ukraine on protection of population from infectious diseases, the list of occupations that must be vaccinated mandatory. These are the people who are faced with the agents: farmers, butchers, veterinarians, health workers, workers in trade, transport, kindergartens and others.
Now all the Ministry of health purchases vaccines through the international organization Crown Agents, UNDP and UNICEF. Then they are delivered to the regions and distributed at hospitals. Therefore, routine vaccination Ukrainians should do for free.
Before you get a vaccination, the physician should examine the medical records, to measure the temperature and to conduct a General inspection. The doctor will also give you a consent form for vaccination. The completed document remains in a medical facility.
In addition, the doctor must inform about:
• possible reactions to the vaccine and the time frame in which they can occur;
• the symptoms for which urgent need to seek medical help;
• dosage and what analgesic can be taken;
• when you need to get the following vaccinations.
In Ukraine, the risk of outbreaks of infectious diseases – immunology
From 2013 to 2016 in Ukraine, 30 people died from whooping cough and tetanus. In 2016, the world health organization States that vaccination coverage in Ukraine is the lowest in Europe. In the country there are all prerequisites for the outbreak of the disease, doctors say. First, not all children are vaccinated. Second, few Ukrainians know that in adulthood need to be vaccinated.
So, last year only 46% of children were immunized. In 2015 against diphtheria were vaccinated with 0.1% of adults in 2016 – 21%, said Igor Marychev, senior researcher of the Institute of epidemiology and infectious diseases. If 90-95% of people have immunity against infectious diseases, it does not apply across the country. Such immunity is called “collective”. But in Ukraine, by more than two times lower.
“This is a manageable infection. Their distribution depends on the vaccination coverage. It can be assumed that a low level of pribivanii in recent years, a possible epidemic rise of diseases,” said Igor Marychev.
According to immunologist Vadim, Kotsarenko, Ukrainians are not vaccinated due to migration. Moving around the country, patients remain attached with the medical institution at the place of residence. The second reason is poor health and enlightenment. In the best case, recall of vaccination can when applying for a job. But usually of vaccination remember, when you step on a rusty nail, the doctor said.
“Periodically, outbreaks of diphtheria in the adult population there, and the disease is much more difficult than in children. Unfortunately, it is the result of missed vaccination in childhood and neglect of revaccination. In tetanus also, there are cases. After contact with stabnikova wand risk of disease in humans without vaccinations is much greater. To revaktsinirujut need, because it is a particularly dangerous infection is a very high risk of death,” – said Vadim Kozarenko.