The Russian-American struggle for leadership in the world: Syrian axis, and the security of the Caspian sea

Current regional and international developments, as well as relations between the United States and Russia show that the situation is very similar to the cold war between the two countries. The leadership of Russia, headed by Russian President Vladimir Putin wants to achieve a multipolar world and to revive Russia as a superpower in the international arena, where she was absent for nearly 25 years, losing control over the global decision-making of the United States. Speaking about the national security strategy, Russian President Vladimir Putin indicates Russia’s desire to form a new global ideology, based on the principles of a multipolar world, and to create a new structure of international relations without domination of developed Western countries and the international community led by America. Russia will continue to play an important role in the international arena due to its economic, scientific-technical and military capabilities, but also due to its strategic position on the Eurasian continent.

Attempts to ignore Russia’s interests when solving major international disputes, including the resolution of disputes and conflicts, can harm international security and stability. In 1999, Vladimir Putin has signed a government decree on the recovery of initial military training in schools. He was the first President of the Gorbachev era, who signed a similar decree. And the President of Russia, according to many, like Stalin, especially when he said that Chechen rebels would be hunted down and “soak in the toilet”. 9 August of the same year, former Russian President Boris Yeltsin said that his government found a final solution to the Chechen problem. In 2005 Vladimir Putin said that the collapse of the Soviet Union was the greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the twentieth century.

Vladimir Putin has entered a post of the head of state in an unstable and difficult period when the international community witnessed U.S. attempts to “encircle” Russia with its military and economic strength. The Caspian sea region is one of the cornerstones of American foreign policy. This sea contains more than 70 billion barrels of oil and 250 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and therefore is deservedly considered energy treasure. America attempts to control these reserves through all ways and means available to the European financial market, so the United States has contributed to the construction of the oil pipeline Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline. Officially this pipeline started in 2005 and is the second longest pipeline in the world. Some experts call it the project of the century. The pipe runs from the Caucasus and Central Asia to the Mediterranean sea and transportere through Georgia to Turkey large volumes of Azerbaijani oil volume to 300 billion barrels, representing more than a third of oil reserves of the Middle East. The main purpose of this pipeline was to weaken Russian domination in the Caucasus, to allow Georgia and Azerbaijan to gain independence from Russia. In addition, the US is doing everything to surround Russia on the Asian continent through the establishment of such power projects, including the Nabucco gas pipeline, which will go from Azerbaijan through Armenia, Syria, Turkey, Bulgaria to all countries in Europe. And pipeline Qatar-Bulgaria, which is the cause of the war in Syria, because Syria refused to provide its territory for construction. In order not to weaken its economy, Russia buys about 60 billion cubic meters of gas from Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, whose proven reserves are estimated at 80 billion cubic meters, so that the American plans for the Caucasus was foiled due to Russian influence.

The West, which was trying to encircle Russia through oil and gas pipelines found himself surrounded by SCO, which has become a major economic and political organization with which the West and America should be considered. The SCO includes countries such as Russia, China, Turkmenistan, Armenia and Kazakhstan.

That organization summit in Dushanbe (Tajikistan) was focused on the development of unilateral missile defense systems that undermine international security. With regard to the Syrian crisis, it can be solved through dialogue and peaceful negotiations. The SCO summit welcomed the completion of the process of destruction of chemical weapons in 2013 in Syria, supports nuclear talks with Iran and the accession of Iran, India and Pakistan in the SCO as full members.

President Vladimir Putin said he wants to work with all SCO countries in the development of trade and economy to provide a solid basis for their policy and security, and to create a world based on international law. Iran’s President Hassan Rouhani believes that the security of the Caspian sea in accordance with international agreements is very important for the fight against trafficking in arms and human beings. And in the fight against terrorism and drug trafficking.

Russia wants to change the international balance of power by including in the equation the highest number of States to combat the influence of the West and America. In addition, the SCO is in Asia, Russia cooperates with the BRICS countries (Brazil, South Africa, Argentina, India and China) and their allies, such as Venezuela. These countries in total account for 50% of world GDP in the last 15 years.

Since 2008 began economic crises, and international trade balance has changed in favor of these countries. USA, unfortunately, made a number of successful attempts to overthrow the regime in Brazil and the challenge of the unrest in South Africa. And currently trying to apply for Russian interests in the middle East and Syria by supporting terrorism and terrorist organizations. Russia responded by establishing two military bases in Syria naval base in Tartus and air in Hamima.

Analyst Michael Awad believes that the Russian-American conflict moved from Ukraine to Syria. Essentially, this conflict stems from the struggle for control of important geographic areas, as well as control over marine space, by increasing military bases in Europe and Asia.

In Europe, there are 67 major us military bases located in strategically important countries with which the United States have a long historical relationship, such as Germany, which are 17 military bases like Ramstein, consisting of 60 military and 30 thousand troops.

Italy is the command of the submarine fleet, NATO and several military bases, including the base in Naples, where there are 100 us military facilities and 25 thousand American servicemen. And in the UK, which is a traditional ally of America, five air bases and 11 thousands of American soldiers. In the Netherlands, is the airbase of the air fleet of the USA, in Greece, three military bases, and in Portugal — Lajes Field air base, which is 170 U.S. military. As well as US bases are located in such countries as Turkey, Estonia, Lithuania, Kosovo and Poland, which has a military base for launching missiles and naval anti-submarine torpedoes. In addition, the US plans to expand its bases in Spain and is preparing to build a military base in Romania and Ukraine. These bases are necessary in order to attempt to surround Russia with military anti-missile shield. Russian Ambassador to Lebanon Alexander Zasypkin said that Russia’s goal is not the division of Ukraine, but only the return of the Crimea, which will be under Russian and not under the Western and American influence. The most important regions of Ukraine are in the East of the country, namely in the Luhansk region, which is considered the industrial center of Ukraine. More than 70% of the population there is of Russian descent speak the Russian language. Russia does not intend to aggravate the situation in the Caucasus region, despite the presence of the Russian military base in Kyrgyzstan, which is 338-th node of the Navy test base anti-submarine torpedoes and rocket center. Russia also has a base in Moldova, where 1,500 soldiers; the 201st Russian base in Tajikistan with 7500 military personnel; 102nd military base Gyumri in Armenia with 3,000 personnel, 74 tanks, 148 APCS and 84 units of military aviation, 18 MiG-28, the base is in Yerevan, where is the air division No. 1424, which includes the MiG-28 and MiG-24; base radar “Volga” in Belarus; the Gudauta base in Georgia with 3,500 Russian soldiers; base in South Ossetia with 4,000 soldiers; base in the Republic of Kazakhstan at the Sary-Shagan and Balkhash, where a Russian base existed in the seventies. Russia have intensified again in the Philippines and is considering the establishment of a military base to change the strategic balance in the region. The Russian-American struggle for power and control over the world is not random, but is the result of a long historical conflict since the cold war period, which continues today through different ways. And this, perhaps, explains the words of the Minister of foreign Affairs of Russia Sergey Lavrov, that Russia is preparing to enter a new phase of the cold war in the beginning of this century.

All the predictions and the evidence supports that the escalation of the conflict between Russia and America will continue for many decades, because the United States, its political leaders and military do not want to understand that the rules of the international game have changed. The world no longer accepts hegemony. China is awake and wants to play a key role in the world, thanks to its military and economic capabilities. In addition, China has acquired a strong ally in Russia, although different views on some regional and international issues. This may explain the growing concern about U.S. held joint military exercises and exchange of military technology between Russia and China, and between Russia and other countries, such as Iran, India. And maybe that’s why America is currently not want to reduce its spending on defense.

Russia sees the US presence in the Caucasus, in the Caspian sea, and Syria challenge and a direct threat to their interests. US puts pressure on NATO to redeploy its forces in Poland and in the Baltic republics in the framework of their interests. Thus, the United States, according to military experts and observers, made a pre-emptive step and formed a hostile policy toward Russia. And that’s what angered President Putin, who said that Russia has enough forces to protect its national security and citizens from any potential external threat. The United States tried through Turkey further escalate the situation in Syria to exert pressure on Russia. The British newspaper the Guardian believes that the launch of two missiles from Turkey on Syria is a test of Russian air defense system installed on the territory of Syria. This episode is one of many episodes of the ongoing conflict between the two largest military powers, and the tension continues to grow, especially after the refusal of Russia and Iran from participation in the conference to limit the spread of nuclear weapons, held in Washington and was under the personal supervision of the former President Barack Obama. This cold war could turn into a third world nuclear war, as predicted by Francis Fukuyama in his book “Clash of civilizations” (so the text is actually the author of the book “Clash of civilizations” Samuel Huntington, Fukuyama is the author of “the End of history and the last man” — approx. ed.). And therefore, the situation could further spiral out of control. This poses a threat not only to regional security allies of the United States and Russia, but also would lead to a breach of the peace and security of the international system.

The West is trying to do the impossible: to weaken Russia and to revert to its initial strategy based on the rejection of influence in the Caspian and the middle East. The respect commanded by Putin, obviously, came after the actions it has taken in Ukraine, in Azerbaijan and Syria, as well as during the conflict with Turkey. Russia showed the West that is a strong leader with whom to be reckoned, so the West is very hard to ignore the interests of Russia and strengthening of its influence at the international level. The conflict will continue and Syria will be the place of verification of relations between Russia and America and their allies in the near future.