Potato is traditionally considered the king of the garden. And even when it comes to the question of the abolition of the Soviet holidays, the argument for the output is the word “potato.” Under this vegetable is discharged large area corresponding to the location in the diets of Ukrainians. How to increase productivity, Today said Kiev agronomist, candidate of biological Sciences Dmitry Maydanyuk and experienced woman from Zhitomir Nelly Lupinus.
THE VERNALIZATION: UNDER THE ACTION OF LOW TEMPERATURES
To get the potatoes for 1-2 weeks earlier than normal (early-mid June), carried out pre-training. It helps to form a powerful ramified root system and gives rise to a greater number of holes.
The vernalization — revitalization of plant growth under the influence of, for example, short-term action of low temperatures. It is carried out as follows: first warm up the tubers (medium size (40-60 g) with noblemarine shoots — a removal of shoots reduces future harvest by 20-30%. More simple is the preparation preplant tubers without soil, “dry”. While the potatoes are placed in crates 1-2 coats for a few days and put in a room at room temperature (20-25 °C). The light at this time they do not need.
Before this operation, the tubers can be sprayed with growth stimulators (“EPIN”, “Zircon”), preparations containing cytokinins — plant hormones that activates cell division. After exposure in the room with high temperature, the tubers are placed in a cool, bright room (15-17 °C), e.g. in unheated summer porch or greenhouse. Better if light falls on a multiple tubers, so potatoes in the greenhouse in boxes it is better to cover with 1-2 layers of light agrovolan (30-60 µm). It will soften the sunlight and protect you from possible night frosts. The perfect time to start this operation — the end of March or beginning of April (if we plan a landing at the end of April or beginning of may).
The environment around the tubers should be kept moist. To do this, the potatoes are sprayed with a water, weak solutions of humates and micronutrients. But the main solutions of mineral fertilizers should not be used. Under the boxes, especially with lattice bottom, podstolice tape or sew plywood — if the roots penetrate into the soil when removing the tubers from the boxes they can break off, reducing the crop.
3-4 weeks from tuber wakes up the maximum number of eyes, formed the beginnings of roots and shoots — sometimes even with the green leaves. The tubers are planted, as usual, taking care not to damage roots and shoots. Shoots and leaves are completely submerged, which will generate a greater number of adventitious roots with stolons.
Training. Helps to form roots and gives rise to the eyes
WITH COCONUTS AND PEAT
The “wet” method of pre-training is different from previous ones in that the tubers are laid in a single layer in the boxes at the bottom of which poured 5-7 cm horticultural peat, coconut fibre or of fertile soils for seedlings. Decorated in warm tubers are laid out on the surface of the right soils, treated with stimulants, as in the previous case, and sprinkle a little soil. In the period of germination, they form a strong root system and green sprouts with leaves appear much earlier. It is important to carefully remove the potatoes from the box when planting to avoid damaging roots and shoots.
The cultivation of potatoes from seedlings rather time-consuming, but allows you to harvest early potatoes in early June. To do this, in the mid-to late March select the best seed potato tubers without signs of disease. Large tubers can be divided into parts so that each remained at 3-4 buds. Fresh slices give dry and oprobovat for 8-12 hours and then are seated in separate containers (at least 0.5 l) or in boxes with potting mix osypanie 10-15 cm Boxes or pots put in a cool bright room, making sure the soil mix doesn’t dry out. After 3 weeks, as a rule, the roots of the sapling take up the entire pot, and on the surface appear green shoots with leaves.
The seedlings several days before planting fertilize with fertilizers with a large proportion of phosphorus, such as monokaliy (25 g per 10 l), infusion of double superphosphate (40-50 g per 10 liters). In a pinch you can use a solution of NPK (40 g on 10 l of water). This will give a strong start to plants, improves rooting and yield.
As in the case with a damp vernalization, seedlings are planted, totally destroying the sprouts with soil. In areas where the ground is clayey, hard, plants to fill a garden better than peat or its mixture with sand and compost. Preferably a bed with extra-early potatoes to cover with film or agrotextile on the arcs, that will save the night frosts.
Seated 3-4 buds