Without the next credit tranche from the IMF, Ukrainians will have to tighten the belt. Foreign currency mortgages allow you to keep the dollar and repay the state debt, accumulated over the years. Now the Ukrainian government is discussing with the IMF a Memorandum on cooperation, in which the President, Prime Minister, NBU head and Finance Minister traditionally committed to implement the recommendations of the experts of the Fund. The final text of the document is still not ready, but the media have already appeared information about the fact that Ukraine in the Memorandum with the IMF will take over the obligation to raise the retirement age to 63 years by 2027. The website “Segodnia” gathered the opinion of officials and experts, will increase in Ukraine the retirement age and why.
The opinion of experts: whether to raise the retirement age
From the point of view of the IMF to raise the retirement age – normal, says senior researcher of the Institute of demography and social studies Lydia Tkachenko. Such a recommendation, the expert said, has been voiced several times already.
As explained by an academic, raising the retirement age will reduce the number of pensioners and increase the number of working Ukrainians. Now, according to the Ministry of social policy, 10 working Ukrainians have to contain 12 retirees. At this ratio, to talk about the high pensions are not necessary.
According to estimates of the Institute of demography, if you increase the retirement age to 65 years – the number of pensioners will decrease by one million. If to 62 years – 500 thousand.
“International standards like the Convention on social security, suggesting that retirement age is 65 years you can set no matter what the circumstances. In fact, to say that direct limits in international practice there. Low retirement age is not accompanied by a prolonged lifespan. People who live to 60 years, with the same probability will live up to 63 years”, says Lydia Tkachenko.
“International standards like the Convention on social security, suggesting that retirement age is 65 years you can set no matter what the circumstances,” says Lydia Tkachenko.
Raising the retirement age would be phased in (4 months yearly) and will not affect those who not very long before retirement.
At the same time, senior expert of the World Bank Alexei Sluchinski sure: raising the retirement age may slightly rectify the situation, but the problem will not solve it. “To raise the retirement age – dead poultices,” says the expert.
An expert in the field of pensions Alexander weaver also believes that raising the retirement age to improve the situation, but will not save the pension system of Ukraine. “After raising the retirement age, the threat will recede, but the revision of the retirement age – a move aside the threat at the time. In itself, the increase is a large effect will not give. We need to move from solidarity principle to cumulative,” says Alexander weaver.
Main countries demographer Ella Libanova noted: a key factor that should influence the decision to raise the retirement age – life expectancy of Ukrainians after 60 years. Now men retired only live 13-14 years, and females about 20 years.
“The fact that it is crucial to establish a retirement age has a life expectancy of at his achievement. Now women at age 60 have a chance to live another 20 years, and men – only 13-14. For comparison: in Poland, where now men retire at 65 and women at 60, life expectancy is 73 and 80.4 years respectively. So they have enough reason to raise the retirement age to 67 years,” says demographer.
“The fact that it is crucial to establish a retirement age has a life expectancy of at his achievement. Now women at age 60 have a chance to live another 20 years, and men – only 13-14”, – said the expert.
The opinion of the authorities: “this talk about anything”
“I can hear some predictions about raising the retirement age. It’s talking about anything. Tried to undermine the country through tariffs – did not happen. Looking for something in particular retirement age, to intimidate people. But I want to assure you that we will not do anything bad against citizens, – quotes UNIAN words of the Prime Minister Volodymyr Groysman. – Every step will be skipped through the heart with the understanding of how living citizen. We will honestly engage in dialogue with society.”
“I can hear some predictions about raising the retirement age. It’s talking about anything. Tried to undermine the country through tariffs – did not happen. Looking for something in particular retirement age, to intimidate people. But I want to assure you that we do not do anything wrong against citizens”, – said the Prime Minister.
Deputy Minister of Finance Oksana Markarova at the end of last year, explained: the IMF demands to raise the retirement age, there is a requirement to balance the pension Fund. And it’s not necessary to raise the age of retirement, you can, for example, to require all employees (and there are 16 million people) to pay contributions to the pension Fund.
The Minister sotspolitiki Andrey Reva confirms that the question of raising the retirement age at the moment can only be considered theoretically. Western partners of Ukraine, said the official, already made the decision to raise the retirement age in their countries.
“Here we do not have enough money in the Pension Fund. We’re going to take on the West. Come to Germany to meet Angela Merkel. Mournfully in her face talking about what we don’t have enough money for retirement. What is she thinking, do you think? She is a woman of breeding, she certainly will not say it to my face, but she knows that her age of retirement in Germany is 67 years. What is she thinking?”, – says the official.
Says Andriy Reva, recently the retirement age has been raised in Belarus and Moldova. In connection with the aging of the population of Ukraine will also have to reconsider the retirement age. At the moment the Minister of social policy is considering to raise the retirement age for the Ukrainians, who have little work experience.
As says the Deputy Chairman of the Pension Fund Mykola Shambir, it is still unknown how it will change the average age of men in the hostilities in the Donbas. According to statistics, men live on pension only 14-15 years, which corresponds to in Europe. “We have no such high rate of survival (life pension) to raise the retirement age. Today we have a bad health situation and social status of citizens. Indicators for raising the retirement age is not”, – says Mykola Shambir.
Recall that in June last year the government reduced by 40% the list of professions and positions with harmful working conditions. Earlier, more than a million Ukrainians have the right to withdraw a “deserved rest” until retirement age. According to preliminary estimates of the Confederation of free trade unions of Ukraine (KSPU), the decision will affect more than 400 thousand Ukrainians.
In 2003, the Cabinet approved two lists with lists of occupations, workers are eligible to retire on preferential terms. In the first list are the most harmful work (miners, miners, nuclear workers, pilots). In the second list are health workers, teachers, unskilled workers in specific enterprises, actors and geologists. List No. 2 removed most of the medical specialties, and handymen who do not spend the whole working in harmful conditions.
Of the 72 categories, workers are busy in the mines, in the new list have only 2 categories: workers who are full-time working day are under the earth and those who serves the personnel engaged under the ground (the medical staff in the mines, the staff of service connection under the ground). At the same time will no longer to go before retirement Director of mines, mechanics, power engineers, technical managers and their deputies, of the master.
The same is true of metro workers, construction workers who work underground. If the old list of specialties were almost all the staff: from chief engineer to the electrician, according to the new list before retirement will be able to reach only those who are engaged in underground works.