Plastic waste is one of the worst back of our domestic comfort. How many craftsmen or invent ways to prolong her life (bottled doing anything from washing hands to garden sculptures), garbage remains garbage, and it will sooner or later need to be disposed of. The approximate scale of the problem described in the National strategy of waste management.
“According to her, in Ukraine for the year is going to about 600 thousand tonnes of used plastic and 1 million tonnes of glass, — says Eugene Oratovska, ecoactivist, head of environmental project “Ukraine WITHOUT smittya”. — And last year’s study of the French company “BETEN, Ingegneri”, which carried out the morphological analysis of debris in Cherkassy, revealed that 35% of content of container — valuable resources components: paper, plastic, glass and metal.”
All this stuff can be spent on processing and benefit, but in Ukraine — difficulties. For example, in the Norwegian capital machines for the reception of plastic bottles — every step of the way. For each bottle the machine knocks out a cheque for 1-1,5 kroner (50 bottles — about $ 6): they can be easily found in any supermarket. And in Ukraine, if you want to be a responsible citizen, have to sweat. And that at least the proportion of the plastic we are not “decorated” dumps and parks, and gets a second life in spite of many obstacles, the merit of a handful of people and individual companies.
“Harvest”. 500 000 tonnes of plastic per year
FILTER THE GARBAGE: WELCOME FROM 2.5 UAH/KG
That trash must be sorted into useful and residual, say for a long time and a lot, moving very slowly. “Even 5 years ago, the Razumkov Centre estimated that 41% of Ukrainians are willing to sort garbage, says Oratovska. But conditions in the country. The process would go faster if we had conducted an awareness campaign about the dangers of mysorewala and the importance of waste sorting”.
Today in Kiev, according to Artovskoy, garbage sorting only a very conscious people. And it is inconvenient: you have to go to the recycling centre to look for a mobile point of the organization “Ukraine without garbage” or carry the bags to the sorting plant. “All the other tools are not working. People have repeatedly complained that the carefully sorted containers for separate waste collection reloaded EN masse in the normal compartment of the truck — which throws it all on the ground, or in the best case takes away for the “Energy” plant, where garbage is burned. In the result of tinkering with the division on packages only 1-2% of Kyiv residents,” she says.
100% sort yet: some do not know others can not
WHAT’S THE CATCH. “Our sources in the communal services say that the trash goes into a common pot, because 100% sorted it’s still not working. Some do not know how to sort, others ignore the order. In addition, the valuable from the trash before anyone else, as a rule, take the homeless,” explains Eugene.
So city officials can respond to the work of garbage trucks, we need the specifics, but complaints as such is not received, says the adviser to the Deputy head of Kyiv Yulia Competent. In addition, some residents set containers for separate waste collection, officially about not telling, and as a result debris comes in one standard car, although would need three of them.
“At the system level in separation of waste is not really organized. There are only a few community citizens who consciously separate garbage and pass the glass and plastic directly to the recycling, she says. — In homes where the Board OSBB really interested in this question, recyclables do not even rent, and profitable sell.”
As has been reported by the district administration, the Islands of civilization in Kiev is still there. So, in the area Desnyanskiy in homes 6 housing Department has installed 145 containers, such as “bell” for separate waste collection. In all of the dosage of all 106 homes got a container-grid Pechersk such — 206. Center at 1447 normal tanks — 297 special: collection of polymers, paper and cardboard. Hem them just 70, and the volume of separately collected waste in comparison with the previous year increased by 30%. In the Goloseevsky district sorts out the rubbish 221 house — 26% of all serviced residential properties. Lead the Dnieper and Solomenskiy: they separate recyclables, respectively, 411 and 429 houses. By the way, per kilo of PET bottles provide from 2.5 UAH, and plastic bags — 5 UAH.
Sort. The main thing — to observe rules of all tenants
DISPOSAL OF GARBAGE: COOMERASWAMY AND MAKE A CONTRACT
The bulk of the customers points of reception of recyclable materials are, according to Artovskoy, the homeless, the poor, retirees and janitors. But to educate people to segregate waste at once is a noble thing. “Now we try to implement a pilot project with the business (producing garbage by the ton. — Ed.): to convince landlords to facilitate the work of janitors, says Oratovska. In some large institutions benefit from this already understood. Thus, in one business center 4 janitor on the delivery of recyclable materials to earn a fridge and microwave and now I use them in the utility room”.
If the tenants want to make themselves at the waste of valuable resources — they will have to work hard. “First you need to find a company really engaged in the collection of recyclable materials, for example, effectively works in such Irpen, Vorzel, Bucha, Kotsyubinskoye, she every day about 200 tons of “production”. And to conclude with them the contract for the installation of special containers and the removal of their content,” explains Oratovska.
In the structure of KCSA there is the “Caucasuswas” resembles Competent: if you want to at least take away glass and plastic, it is necessary to refer to them directly or to city hall — there is a right, where necessary.
“With a home community to discuss details, logistics, volumes, opportunities for waste disposal, inspected the house and will clarify the number of residents, describes the process she. — Then the company will install the container and will regularly come to purchase recycled materials”. But it is important that decision was made by all residents of the home, and individuals continued to throw away the trash pile, the old fashioned way.
EXPENSIVE. Even separately collected plastic needs to be dosourceroute — it is divided into 4 types manually. The cost of the salary of graders, rent of premises, warehousing, storage, compression, and fuel is not yet covered by the sale of obtained raw materials, explains Eugene Oratovska.
“The system works, if you introduce extended producer responsibility using plastic, she says. — These companies are merged into an independent structure, which will Finance industry is sorting trash. Contributions go into a common Fund from which purchased containers for each locality, hiring carriers for their service — so collecting the recyclables”.
Thus, beverage manufacturers are required to gather in the month of 50-70% of the sale put into bottles, and every year this rate increases by 5%, gradually reaching the maximum.
“Companies are interested in collecting bottles for fear of a fine. They develop training programs for the population, pay the agencies for cool social advertisements that will inspire consumers to separate plastic, booklets and leaflets, — a process she describes. — A supplier of recycled try to choose from the same country so he paid taxes in favor of the community — and everyone is happy”.
WAIT FOR SOLUTIONS FROM ABOVE. In Ukraine, the law obliging companies to act together, not yet: he’s already provided in the waste management Strategy and sooner or later will appear. But, according to Artovskoy, to bring the idea to life hampered only by lack of desire. “They say, let’s say, a dozen market leaders will unite and will incur additional costs. And what about the hundreds of small companies? Get unfair market conditions,” she explains.
To rely on the consciousness of the people also do not have to believe in the “Ukraine without garbage”. “People need to be comfortable, fast and cheap. It is necessary to create artificial economic barriers availability of plastic containers — for example, internal taxes or the excise tax,” say the activists. That is, although the plastic became initially popular as a cheap alternative to glass and ceramics — now it needs to become expensive, and the Cup cost the hryvnia, and 10 as a future problem waste. So each user will contribute to the construction of a modern incineration plant, and the turnover of cheap Chinese plastic toys, lunch boxes and disposable bags finally reduced.
Deficit. Polygons have not enough
PLANS: RATES WILL RISE
Strategy of waste management is the concept of the decision of this problem developed before 2025. “The planned arrangement of several of the recycling centers (5-th ground already in very poor condition), — says Yulia Competent. — Will split the debris on main fractions: components of valuable resources, reference fuel for plant Energy (heats the whole neighborhood Poznyaki) and the organics that are buried or processed into fertilizer.”
The most problematic category is the residual garbage that can only be burned, but it is expensive. “In Switzerland, every resident of the country puts on a packages with specmarks, each worth 2 francs (about 55 UAH), — says Eugene. — The price already incorporated the fee for burning content, given the cost of building createlogo plant.” The plant in the centre of Vienna, burning 250 tonnes of waste per year, for 1 t pay 230 euros to the municipality, and this is 5 million euros per month, says an expert.
“In Kiev promised 5 sightline plants. At whose expense? If they use cheap technology is unsafe — she said. — Japanese technology, a plasma combustion include the combustion temperature of 2000 °C and no heavy metals and dioxin, which seep through any filters. And in the technical specifications for the Kiev project — 850-900 degrees (“Energy”)”.
In the developed countries can afford new technologies, because people pay for garbage collection expensive. The only option for Ukraine is also to increase the tariff, with the current at least 15-20 UAH to 100 UAH.
“We need to explain to the tenants: before you buy plastic stuff — think that soon he will become trash and have to pay for disposal” — sure Oratovska. However, while to increase the rate of waste disposal authorities plan to.
Properly discard. Intend to teach children in school years
PLANTS: TEACH STUDENTS TO SORT
“Obolon”. The company takes care of recycling of PET packaging in 2003, and the volume of investment in this initiative has exceeded 10 million UAH. “According to environmentalists, all residents of large cities of Ukraine annually produces about 20 kg of polymer waste during the year. And products in PET-packaging is getting 10-12% more each year, — says Svetlana Bashmakova, leading engineer on environmental protection. We decided to implement its own program for recycling of these wastes”.
In Alexandria (Kirovograd region) has installed a line to grind used containers for semi — Flex. Initially, these raw materials are exported, and 9 years ago began the production of the final product: now former bottles produced packing tape, boxes and even plastic furniture (chairs and tables).
“Modern German equipment works so that all these processes are safe for the environment, explains Bashmakova. — Organization of collection of raw materials (waste, PET packaging) we have established not only at all “Obolon”, but also from the public. Set up about hundreds of containers for collecting bottles near residential buildings in the capital. But for continuous operation of the line of raw materials is not enough: additionally purchase PET containers from suppliers. Unfortunately, Ukrainians do not actively pass the bottle — as a rule, every visitor leaves a bottle or two thrown into the pot”.
The Alexandria shop is about 700 tons of unnecessary plastic (and in all the years — more than 11 thousand). And the profits from the sale of produced there banding — not less than 15.5 million UAH per year.
Second life. Bottles are transformed into furniture and trempel
CARLSBERG UKRAINE. According to Eugenia Poddubnaya-Smirnova, senior Director for corporate relations of the company “Carlsberg” is also considering to optimize the use of resources in production in the name of the environment. Thanks to the cooperation with partners — container operators, the company managed to 2016, for example, the reuse of more than 175 million glass bottles.
“And that about 52% of the volume of the secondary sales of beer in glass bottles, — says Eugene. Plastic partners collect in their collection points throughout Ukraine.” The collected bottles are sorted by color (blue, white, green and brown), then go to the sink-cleaning. Obtained Flex after the first stage of processing gets in the company that produce from it a string for padding, stuffing for car seats, etc.
“But such processing industries in Ukraine a little. Therefore, a significant portion of PET as recycled or synthetic tissue as a result of exports, — says the representative of the company. — We actively support the “Ukraine without garbage” which intends to teach the Ukrainians the culture of separate collection of household waste from school”.
PEPSICO. “We take the position that the most effective solution would be the introduction of the European system of separate collection and “Extended producer responsibility” — says Alina Matkovsky, head of corporate communications PepsiCo in Ukraine. — Today a part of packaging waste the company sent to recycling companies through specialized contractors. The company has developed a development strategy “performance with purpose” and intends by 2025 to achieve reusable or recycling 100% of the packaging material.
“Last year, we held educational events in 63 schools of Nikolaev: taught the guys how to correctly sort waste into four fractions and sent for recycling. This year will continue,” says Christine. — In addition, the company has long sorted the garbage into six fractions (separate cardboard and foil) for further processing”.