200 years after the konung Oleg announced Kiev mother of Russian cities, the Rurikovich and the monks were puzzled by the strange question: “Where have gone the Russian land?” The result is a “Tale of bygone years” Nestor the chronicler. Interest in the past is clear — it is not only curiosity, but also a way to justify land rights on the principle of “we have always lived here”. Or almost always. At the same time appeared “the Czech chronicle” Cosmas of Prague with the Polish “Chronicle of Gallus Anonymous” similar to the “Story”, but the authors were not looking for the Czech and Polish lands. Both lands were in place and only the Russian was lost and looking for her. But neither Nestor nor the other authors of all three editions of “the Story” to find it and failed.
Nestor at the beginning of the “Story” posted an extensive review of settlement of different peoples from England and to Vyatichi on the Oka river, but found no Russian and Russian land, 50 years after the death of Yaroslav the Wise and his daughter Anna. In the end, Nestor has solved the problem of the lack of Russian land and the Russian magically, but close to the realities — made the Varangian Oleg after the murder of Askold and dir to deliver in front of squad the speech reduced to one sentence “it’s going to be the mother of Russian cities”. So Kyiv is the city of the glades suddenly became a “Russian” like the Crimea in 2014. For 1900 years before Putin Nestor applied the method of “where is the Russian, there is Russia”. Between Nestor and Putin in this method, all Moscow princes, kings with different activity also shouted: “Kiev is ours, Siberia, Chukotka, the Caucasus, and the khanate of Kokand, of course, it’s ours.”
Kings was easier than Nestor. He did all the dirty work. Announced on behalf of Oleg of Kiev, “the Russian land” and with difficulty, but found it Russian among the “newcomers”, writing: in the squad of Oleg was “varyazi, and Slaven, and others, prozvashasya Rus.” Among them was Russian, which is not the Slavs, not the Vikings-the Scandinavians, not even Finno-Finns. That (they) — not Slavs Nestor solidarity with the Arabs and the Persians, clearly distinguish the Rus from the Slavs. The Rus they are called the ruling clan, who takes tribute from the Slavs and sell them into slavery. So thanks to “Russian brothers”, thanks to them in Western European languages, the word “slave” and “Slav” is cognate.
But where in a team of Vikings Helga — Holy, this is the meaning of its name in Scandinavian languages, later adapted in prophetic Oleg — there Rus/dew? Will Nestor and the Patriarch of Constantinople Photius (820-896).
Photius in his two homilies (messages) described in detail the first release of Russian in the light. On 18 June 860 million on the outskirts of Constantinople, attacked 200 ships (8 thousand people) unknown to the Greek people, “ROS” — the squad led by Askold and dir. In “the Story” the campaign of Askold wrongly dated 864, Rus shocked Photius and the Greeks killing of children and women, senseless from their point of view. But for Russ the meaning of them was — a human sacrifice. A hundred years Prince Svyatoslav again shocked them Greeks. All over the fact that Photius held a religious procession at the walls of Constantinople, gathered from the residents money, pay off Askold and drew him to Christianity. So Oleg and Askold was buried at the cave and the pagan dir — Kurgan on the Starokievskaya mountain.
Where did Russ Askold and dir, according to Nestor. They were vigilantes Rurik, but did not belong to his family. Rurik — the Vikings-Danish, therefore they — not the Vikings. Analogues of the names of Askold and dir is not in any of the “living” languages. Lomonosov and other authors correctly considered the Rus to be one of the Prussian tribes, but the Prussian language is hopelessly dead. Therefore, there are no analogues.
Askold and dir — first authentic Russian/Russian. The first and the last. After they were killed by the Vikings Oleg in the name of Ingvar (Igor), Rus from their guards entered his squad, but princes did not. Disappeared into it without a trace and no blood in the kind of Rurik is not poured. So Vladimir the Baptist and Yaroslav the Wise — even less Russian than Armenian Lavrov or Shoigu, the Tuvan. Only Moscow “historians” and “academics” Shcheglov from the marriage of the Vikings Igor with Olga Bulgarian may be Russian Svyatoslav, sex with a northerner or kravichenko Malusha again gives the Russian Vladimir. Sex with Vladimir Rogneda a female Varyag they have persistently produces another “Russian” — Yaroslav, and the marriage of that with the Swede Ingigerda gives “Russian” Anna. How Swedes do not interbreed among themselves, the “academics” in the end, always turns out Russian.
Russian and the transformation of the ROS/Rus in Russian owe to the Greeks and personally to Patriarch Photius, who made PR rusam Russian diocese and Rousseau.
To 1113, when Nestor had finished his “Tale”, Rurik faced with a terrible for monarchs problem. They were descended from the Vikings of Igor, the alleged son of Rurik, and the Greeks, the Byzantines, and after them the whole Europe and Asia, strange, called them the Rus/dew and their possessions — Rucia or Russia. The dynasty faced a problem: how to explain who these Rus where they came from and where was their original land? The problem is serious: from ancient times, property rights are justified archival references. So Nestor sat down to write “the Story” and look for Russ and their land.
The result is known: Nestor found the Rus, and the Russian land — no. He honestly presented the facts and only added it to Oleg in 882 the mother of Russian cities. Pronounce it Oleg or not is unknown, between him and the Nestor — 200 years. As the word “capital” was not, but Nestor wanted to call Kiev the main city of the Rus, they used this Greek word “metropolis” that means “mother-city”. But the monk Nestor had no right to give such a status to Kiev and was forced to do so authoritatively Oleg. For example, this phrase is not an invention of Nestor, and Oleg said retainers-ruses Askold and dir: “Kyiv is a metropolis” or something like that. In both cases, the result is the same — Rurik after the Greeks began to call their possessions Rus and Ruthenians all who were able to impose tribute. Vyatichi was the last Eastern Slavs, which Vladimir Monomakh turned into a Russian — tributaries-the serfs of Rus-Rusyns.
So the name of one of the Prussian tribe of Rus — began to spread into vast estates of Rurikovich and all the Eastern Slavs. Not an isolated case. The northerners, clearing and other Slavs from the VII century the Danube was renamed the Turks-Bulgarians, Brits — the British in the result of the “call” of the German tribe of the angles and the Gauls became the French with a “light hand” of the Franks-Germanic. The tribe was from the South of the Apennine Peninsula, which the Greeks called “Italo”, eventually gave the name to Italy, despite the fact that his role in the creation of the Roman civilization was as modest as Russ in kievrussia. the Greeks became the “godfathers” for Italy and Russia, just as Columbus was to the Indians of America, and Moscow alike were called Tatars, many ethnic groups, whether the Bulgars of the Volga, or the Crimean Cumans.
Introduced by scribes in the time of Nestor the word “Ruthenian” is not caught, it is briefly recalled only in the XIX century in Galicia and Transcarpathia. Not accustomed, as are the ruses quickly disappeared. More common centuries later became “Russian”. But in 1721 Peter I ordered to replace it with “the Russians” as the possessive Russian — a reference to the vassals of the Rus that humiliating for the Empire builders. The execution of the decree of Peter I on the establishment of the nation of the Russians skidded and to the twentieth century was used as a parity (terms) “Russians”, “Russians” and “Russian”.
In the Kremlin in connection with the attack Russia to Ukraine and the revival of the policy of Imperial expansion for the second year running around with the idea of renaming Russian to Russians, apparently, pursuant to the decree of Peter I. In this case told the Ukrainians that they are Ruthenians and novorosy, but rename the “back” of the great Russians in Russian or staronosov not in a hurry — the party line, as usual, ranges and breeds right-left evaders in the absence of a straight line and as the party is terribly far from reality.
If not for the Russian occupation of the Crimea and part of Donbass, and its multi-faceted pressure on Ukraine, on “scientific” surveys of the Kremlin would react irony, and even sympathetic. Similar to how the Italians reacted to the appearance they have in the XIX century, the brothers of Romanians who declared themselves descendants of the Roman Legionnaires and Dacians. As in Bucharest claimed: “Rome is ours!” and Julius Caesar — the native Romanians, the Italians were flattered and amused that after 1.5 thousand years appeared one of the lost Legion. Only in Walachia and Moldova, but not in Britain and Gaul. The emergence of the Romanians nervously reacted only Russia and forbade its controlled Moldovans called themselves Romanians. In the result, Moldovans on the right Bank of the river Prut became the Romanians, and the left remained Moldovans with the prospect of becoming Bessarabia, and then Russian.
Ukrainians, too, could have pricked that in the distant Yaroslavl found the descendants of the warriors of Yaroslav the Wise founded the city, and in Moscow — the icon, stolen from Kiev Yuri Dolgoruky. In Kiev there would be “little sister” — Moscow, but the Russian tanks in Crimea and the Donbass cause different sensations. So we are closer to the French, not the Italian-Romanian version of the relationship, besides it is closer to the realities of history.
The French, Bulgarians and the British, bear the name of conquerors, but in the period of the French revolution, when the armies of Prussia and Austria began to invade the country, they have sharply aware of themselves as Gauls. There was even a theory that the nobles — the descendants of the Franks and the third estate — the Gauls, and because the revolution is a war of national liberation. Further Franco-German war led to the fact that the French are stressed to keep their lineage from the Gauls, not Franks, to erect monuments to Vercingetorix, and eventually took a TV series about Obelix and Asterix, creating the feeling that the Gauls won the war in Julius Caesar. To rename France Gaul is still not reached, despite the delights of Franco-German propaganda of Goebbels, as both world wars, the Gauls won, and the world has grown accustomed to the French, not the great Gallic revolution. The French continue to be called French, but at heart they are — the Gauls, from which once the geese saved Rome.
Therefore, for Ukraine in the current situation the old slogan of the poet Khvylovy “get out of Moscow!” has become as relevant as for France, its gallista the time of the revolution and of the three Franco-German wars. Unlike the French, we have the advantage, we should not be renamed: Ukraine and Ukrainians — the long-established name. But there are problems — well-established historical term “Rus,” given to us by the Greeks, and his aggressive and illegal exploitation by Moscow. You can go the “Greek way” and just as Greece calls on UN to ban the Republic of Macedonia to use the name “Macedonia” and blocks due to its membership in NATO and the EU, Ukraine also may require Russia to change the name. That is to say, to revoke a license for the use of the word “Rus” and its derivatives. First of all, this can be done in the WTO, given that Russia is the second year of blocking the transit of Ukrainian goods to Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Let preregistered to the WTO under another name.